Hits 1 - 10 (out of 6256 matching entities) [11964 mentions] (47 ms):
1. chronic myeloid leukemias

9848 articles, score 4547.190

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Many diseases have their treatment options narrowed and end up being fatal if detected during later stages. As a consequence, point-of-care devices have an increasing importance for routine screening applications in the health sector due to their portability, fast analyses and decreased cost. For that purpose, a multifunctional chip was developed and tested using gold nanoprobes to perform RNA optical detection inside a microfluidic chip without the need of molecular amplification steps. As a proof-of-concept, this device was used for the rapid detection of chronic myeloid leukemia, a hemato-oncological disease that would benefit from early stage diagnostics and screening tests. The chip passively mixed target RNA from samples, gold nanoprobes and saline solution to infer a result from their final colorimetric properties. An optical fiber network was used to evaluate its transmitted spectra inside the chip. Trials provided accurate output results within 3 min, yielding signal-to-noise ratios up to 9 dB. When compared to actual state-of-art screening techniques of chronic myeloid leukemia, these results were, at microscale, at least 10 times faster than the reported detection methods for chronic myeloid leukemia. Concerning point-of-care applications, this work paves the way for other new and more complex versions of optical based genosensors.
    Multifunctional microfluidic chip for optical nanoprobe based RNA detection - application to Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
    Scientific reports, Jan 2018 [PubMed 29321602]
  • Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with breakpoint cluster region-Abelson tyrosine kinase inhibitors are likely to survive in excess of 20 years after diagnosis. New challenges appear as we consider life after the disease, including professional challenges and the social reintegration of patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of chronic myeloid leukemia on employment within 2 years after diagnosis. This prospective, observational study included patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia and treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Two populations were defined as patients who reported modifications in their professional activity during the study (Acti-Pro+) and patients who did not report a modification (Acti-Pro-). Cancer survivors received a self-assessment questionnaire. The primary endpoint was to determine the professional status of patients. One hundred patients completed the questionnaire. Sixty-six patients out of 100 reported professional activity within 2 years after their diagnosis. During the 2 years after the diagnosis, 65.2% (95% confidence interval (CI), 53.7-76.7) of patients faced modifications in their professional activity due to chronic myeloid leukemia or adverse effects of drug treatments (group Acti-Pro+); in contrast, 34.8% of patients did not report any impact on their occupational activity (group Acti-Pro-). Among modifications to work organization, a change in the number of working hours was the most represented. Other modifications comprised changes in status or work pace. A majority of chronic myeloid leukemia patients face professional consequences of their disease and treatments. Our findings suggest that adverse drug reactions are a major factor affecting the occurrence of work modifications in this context.
    The impact of chronic myeloid leukemia on employment: the French prospective study.
    Annals of hematology, Nov 2018 [PubMed 30446803]
  • tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have revamped entirely the approach to this diagnosis. What once was a predictably fatal disease (with the exception of rare patients with long term success from interferon and those who could undergo and survive allogeneic stem cell transplant) is now a highly treatable condition, with 'functional cure' (sustained remission after TKI cessation) a possibility for many. For the patient with CML diagnosed in the chronic phase in the current era, initial discussions typically focus on risk stratification and optimized choice among several approved TKI options, with stem cell transplantation evaluation deferred and reserved for cases of advanced phase disease and sequential or highly selective TKI resistance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Back to the future: TFR and pregnancy in CML.
    European journal of haematology, Nov 2018 [PubMed 30403419]

2. imatinib

3261 articles, score 1317.456

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients failing to achieve a cytogenetic response on imatinib and suggests that deep molecular response to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors is governed by the biology of more primitive chronic myeloid leukemia cells or extrinsic factors.
    cells from chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with and without deep molecular responses to nilotinib.
    Oncotarget, Apr 2018 [PubMed 29707154]
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia is associated with a BCR/ABL oncoprotein inhibited by imatinib mesylate, the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although experimental studies have clearly demonstrated the efficacy of imatinib, up-to-date data on its effectiveness at the population level are limited. Our study aims to assess the change in disease-specific survival for chronic myeloid leukemia after introducing tyrosine kinase inhibitors in first-line treatment. This study analyzed data from two population-based cancer registries in Italy. Disease-specific survival for chronic myeloid leukemia cases diagnosed before and after the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (February 2002) were calculated up to 10 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox regression models adjusted for sex, age at diagnosis and residency. An interrupted time series analysis was also performed. Between 1996 and 2012, 357 new cases of chronic myeloid leukemia were diagnosed (standardized incidence rate of 1.2 per 100,000 residents), quite constant throughout the period. The interrupted time series analysis showed a gain of 40.4% in 5 years of disease-specific survival for chronic myeloid leukemia (from 47.3, 95%CI 38.5-55.5% to 80.8%, 95%CI 74.5-85.8%) after the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The hazard ratio was 0.36 (95%CI 0.25-0.52) for cases diagnosed after tyrosine kinase inhibitor introduction, with differences per age at diagnosis: <65yo 0.17 (95%CI 0.08-0.39), >74yo 0.41 (95%CI 0.23-0.73). An improvement in survival (hazard ratio 0.66, 95%CI 0.36-1.20) was also observed in cases diagnosed before, and alive at, tyrosine kinase inhibitors introduction. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors increased disease-specific survival both for new and prevalent chronic myeloid leukemia cases. The effectiveness was similar to that observed in trials only in patients ages 65 years or younger.
    The impact of introducing tyrosine kinase inhibitors on chronic myeloid leukemia survival: a population-based study.
    BMC cancer, Nov 2018 [PubMed 30400842]
  • ± standard deviation. The distribution of +68GA ins/del promoter polymorphism genotypes differed significantly between the thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic chronic myeloid leukemia patient groups (p < 0.0001). Moreover, +68GA del/del and ins/del genotypes in imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia patients were associated with an increased risk of developing thrombocytopenia, with odds ratios 6.5 (95% confidence interval = 2.02-0.89, p = 0.001) and 6.0 (95% confidence interval = 2.26-15.91, p = 0.0002), respectively. Similarly, -909C/A promoter polymorphism genotype distribution also differed significantly between thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic chronic myeloid leukemia patient groups (p = 0.02), and a significantly increased risk of imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia was associated with -909C/A polymorphism mutant homozygous (AA) genotypes the odds ratio being 7.7 (95% confidence interval 1.50 to 39.91, p = 0.009). However, no significant risk of imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia was found to be associated with heterozygous genotype (-909C/A) with odds ratio 1.9 (95% confidence interval = 0.86-4.56, p = 1.14). Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA expression was significantly higher in chronic myeloid leukemia patients compared to controls (p = 0.008). Moreover, patients with imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia had a significantly lower platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA expression, compared to patients without thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). A differential expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA was observed with respect to different +68 GA ins/del and -909C/A polymorphism genotypes. The +68GA deletion allele and -909A allele were significantly associated with lower expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α +68GA del/del, +68GA ins/del, and -909AA genotypes are associated with an increased risk of developing thrombocytopenia in imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia patients. A significantly lower platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA expression accompanies the +68GA deletion allele in an allele dose-dependent manner. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α -909AA genotype is also associated with lower expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α. The downregulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α expression may play a causative role in imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia, a common side effect, in the subset of chronic myeloid leukemia patients with platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α +68 GA ins/del, +68 GA del/del, and -909C/A genotypes.
    PDGFRα promoter polymorphisms and expression patterns influence risk of development of imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia in chronic myeloid leukemia: A study from India.
    Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine, Oct 2017 [PubMed 29019285]

3. acute myeloid leukemias

2784 articles, score 1176.033

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Germ line predisposition to myeloid neoplasms has been incorporated in the WHO 2016 classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. The new category of disease is named hereditary myeloid disorder (HMD). Although most myeloid neoplasms are sporadic, germ line mutations and familial predisposition can contribute to development of chronic myeloid diseases and acute myeloid leukemia. This finding and upcoming frequent use of genome wide detection of molecular aberrations will lead to a higher detection rate of a genetic predisposition and influence treatment decisions. Hereditary predisposition is responsible for 5-10% of myeloid malignancies. Management of affected patients begins by the awareness of treating physicians of the problem and a precise work up of the patient and family members. Areas covered: This review focuses on current knowledge about germ line predisposition for myeloid neoplasms including diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects in adult patients. Essential information for clinical routine is provided. Expert commentary: Compared to a patient without predisposition, adaptation of treatment strategy for patients with an HMD is often necessary, especially to avoid higher risk of relapse or higher toxicity during chemotherapy or transplantation. Mistakes in choice of a related donor can be omitted. Relatives at risk of developing a HMD need specific surveillance.
    Germ line predisposition to myeloid malignancies appearing in adulthood.
    Expert review of hematology, Aug 2018 [PubMed 29958021]
  • Human Chronic and Acute Myeloid Leukemia are myeloproliferative disorders in myeloid lineage of blood cells characterized by accumulation of aberrant white blood cells. In cancer, the anomalous transcriptome includes deregulated expression of non-coding RNAs in conjunction with protein-coding mRNAs in human genome. The coding or non-coding RNA transcripts harboring miRNA-binding sites can converse with and regulate each other by explicitly contending for a limited pool of shared miRNAs and act as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). An unifying hypothesis attributing 'modulation of expression of transcripts' in this fashion had been defined as 'competitive endogenous RNA hypothesis'. Network built with ceRNAs evidently offers a platform to elucidate complex regulatory interactions at post-transcriptional level in human cancers. Contemplating cancers of human myeloid lineage we constructed ceRNA networks for CML and AML coding and non-coding repertoire utilizing patient sample data. Through functional enrichment analysis we selected the significant functional modules for transcripts being differentially expressed in Blastic phases of each cancer types with respect to Normal. After retrieving free energy of binding and duplex formation of shared miRNAs on ceRNAs, we performed statistical averaging of energy values over the ensemble of populations considering cellular system as in canonical (Iso-thermal) situation. We aimed to shed light on 'Sibling Rivalry' in ceRNA partners from the perspective of statistical thermodynamics, identified major cross-talking tracks and ceRNAs influencing transcripts concerned in myeloid cancer systems. Insights into ceRNA-regulation will shed light on progression and prognosis of human Chronic and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
    Exploring the major cross-talking edges of competitive endogenous RNA networks in human Chronic and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
    Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects, Sep 2018 [PubMed 29902552]
  • Although a number of risk factors have been associated with invasive fungal disease (IFD), a systematic review of the literature to document pediatric-specific factors has not been performed. We used the Ovid SP platform to search Medline, Medline In-Process, and Embase for studies that identified risk factors for IFD in children with cancer or those who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We included studies if they consisted of children or adolescents (<25 years) who were receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing HSCT and if the study evaluated risk factors among patients with and those without IFD. Among the 3566 studies screened, 22 studies were included. A number of pediatric factors commonly associated with an increased risk for IFD were confirmed, including prolonged neutropenia, high-dose steroid exposure, intensive-timing chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia, and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Increasing age, a factor not commonly associated with IFD risk, was identified as a risk factor in multiple published cohorts. With this systematic review, we have confirmed IFD risk factors that are considered routinely in daily clinical practice. Increasing age should also be considered when assessing patient risk for IFD. Future efforts should focus on defining more precise thresholds for a particular risk factor (ie, age, neutropenia duration) and on development of prediction rules inclusive of individual factors to further refine the risk prediction.
    Risk Factors for Invasive Fungal Disease in Pediatric Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review.
    Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Aug 2018 [PubMed 28549148]

4. BCR

2854 articles, score 1031.669

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with breakpoint cluster region-Abelson tyrosine kinase inhibitors are likely to survive in excess of 20 years after diagnosis. New challenges appear as we consider life after the disease, including professional challenges and the social reintegration of patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of chronic myeloid leukemia on employment within 2 years after diagnosis. This prospective, observational study included patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia and treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Two populations were defined as patients who reported modifications in their professional activity during the study (Acti-Pro+) and patients who did not report a modification (Acti-Pro-). Cancer survivors received a self-assessment questionnaire. The primary endpoint was to determine the professional status of patients. One hundred patients completed the questionnaire. Sixty-six patients out of 100 reported professional activity within 2 years after their diagnosis. During the 2 years after the diagnosis, 65.2% (95% confidence interval (CI), 53.7-76.7) of patients faced modifications in their professional activity due to chronic myeloid leukemia or adverse effects of drug treatments (group Acti-Pro+); in contrast, 34.8% of patients did not report any impact on their occupational activity (group Acti-Pro-). Among modifications to work organization, a change in the number of working hours was the most represented. Other modifications comprised changes in status or work pace. A majority of chronic myeloid leukemia patients face professional consequences of their disease and treatments. Our findings suggest that adverse drug reactions are a major factor affecting the occurrence of work modifications in this context.
    The impact of chronic myeloid leukemia on employment: the French prospective study.
    Annals of hematology, Nov 2018 [PubMed 30446803]
  • The management of chronic myeloid leukemia with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors has evolved chronic myeloid leukemia into a chronic, manageable disease. A patient-centered approach is important for the appropriate management of chronic myeloid leukemia and optimization of long-term treatment outcomes. The pharmacist plays a key role in treatment selection, monitoring drug-drug interactions, identification and management of adverse events, and educating patients on adherence. The combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with unique safety profiles and individual patients with unique medical histories can make managing treatment difficult. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitor-based treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Management strategies for adverse events and considerations for drug-drug interactions will not only vary among patients but also across tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Drug-drug interactions can be mild to severe. In instances where co-administration of concomitant medications cannot be avoided, it is critical to understand how drug levels are impacted and how subsequent dose modifications ensure therapeutic drug levels are maintained. An important component of patient-centered management of chronic myeloid leukemia also includes educating patients on the significance of early and regular monitoring of therapeutic milestones, emphasizing the importance of adhering to treatment in achieving these targets, and appropriately modifying treatment if these clinical goals are not being met. Overall, staying apprised of current research, utilizing the close pharmacist-patient relationship, and having regular interactions with patients, will help achieve successful long-term treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in the age of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, Sep 2018 [PubMed 28580869]
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia is associated with a BCR/ABL oncoprotein inhibited by imatinib mesylate, the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although experimental studies have clearly demonstrated the efficacy of imatinib, up-to-date data on its effectiveness at the population level are limited. Our study aims to assess the change in disease-specific survival for chronic myeloid leukemia after introducing tyrosine kinase inhibitors in first-line treatment. This study analyzed data from two population-based cancer registries in Italy. Disease-specific survival for chronic myeloid leukemia cases diagnosed before and after the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (February 2002) were calculated up to 10 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox regression models adjusted for sex, age at diagnosis and residency. An interrupted time series analysis was also performed. Between 1996 and 2012, 357 new cases of chronic myeloid leukemia were diagnosed (standardized incidence rate of 1.2 per 100,000 residents), quite constant throughout the period. The interrupted time series analysis showed a gain of 40.4% in 5 years of disease-specific survival for chronic myeloid leukemia (from 47.3, 95%CI 38.5-55.5% to 80.8%, 95%CI 74.5-85.8%) after the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The hazard ratio was 0.36 (95%CI 0.25-0.52) for cases diagnosed after tyrosine kinase inhibitor introduction, with differences per age at diagnosis: <65yo 0.17 (95%CI 0.08-0.39), >74yo 0.41 (95%CI 0.23-0.73). An improvement in survival (hazard ratio 0.66, 95%CI 0.36-1.20) was also observed in cases diagnosed before, and alive at, tyrosine kinase inhibitors introduction. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors increased disease-specific survival both for new and prevalent chronic myeloid leukemia cases. The effectiveness was similar to that observed in trials only in patients ages 65 years or younger.
    The impact of introducing tyrosine kinase inhibitors on chronic myeloid leukemia survival: a population-based study.
    BMC cancer, Nov 2018 [PubMed 30400842]

5. leukemias

2742 articles, score 1030.976

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • The efficacy of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) as treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relies on immune-mediated graft-versus-leukaemia effects. Previous studies have suggested a strong association between graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurrence and graft-versus-leukaemia effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here, we evaluated the kinetics of relapse rate in correlation with GVHD occurrence after UCBT. The kinetics of relapse rate over time in correlation to GVHD occurrence were assessed by calculating the relapse rate per patient-year within sequential 90-day intervals. The impact of GVHD on relapse and mortality was further studied in multivariate Cox models handling GVHD as a time-dependent covariate. The study included data from 1068 patients given single (n = 567) or double (n = 501) UCBT. The proportion of patients with grade II, III and IV acute GVHD was 20%, 7% and 4%, respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 42%, the cumulative incidence of relapse was 32%, and overall survival was 32% as well. Relapse rates declined gradually over time during the first 30 months after transplantation. There was a possible suggestion that grade II-IV acute (HR = 0.8, P = 0.1) and chronic (HR = 0.65, P = 0.1) GVHD decreased relapse risk. However, grade II-IV acute GVHD significantly increased early (the first 18 months after UCBT) mortality (HR = 1.3, P = 0.02), whilst chronic GVHD increased each early (HR = 2.7, P < 0.001) and late (HR = 4.9, P < 0.001) mortality after UCBT. The occurrence of grade II-IV acute or chronic GVHD each increases overall mortality after UCBT for AML mitigating the possible graft-versus-leukemia effect of GVHD.
    Occurrence of graft-versus-host disease increases mortality after umbilical cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia: a report from Eurocord and the ALWP of the EBMT.
    Journal of internal medicine, Feb 2018 [PubMed 28977716]
  • It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p < 0.01), whereas two- to threefold lower levels of Mg was found in blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.
    Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.
    Biological trace element research, Mar 2017 [PubMed 27511371]
  • Childhood chronic myeloid leukemia (CCML) is a malignant disease of granulocyte abnormal hyperplasia that is caused by clonal proliferation of pluripotent stem cells. The condition is relatively rare, accounting for 2.0% to 3.0% of cases of childhood leukemia. In addition, the incidence of extramedullary blast crisis in CCML presenting as central nervous system (CNS) blast crisis remaining chronic phase of the disease in bone marrow is extremely unusual. We report a case of childhood chronic myelogenous leukemia that abandoned treatment, resulting in chronic myelogenous leukemia transforming into extramedullary blast crisis resulting in CNS leukemia, accompanied by the chronic phase of the disease in bone marrow. Chronic myeloid leukemia extramedullary blast crisis presenting as CNS leukemia without blast crisis in bone marrow. Following high-dose systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy, the patient continued to do well. High-dose systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy is safe and helpful for CCML extramedullary blast crisis. A long-term follow-up is crucial.
    Chronic myeloid leukemia extramedullary blast crisis presenting as central nervous system leukemia: A case report.
    Medicine, Nov 2018 [PubMed 30407337]

6. MTTP

2204 articles, score 634.103

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Chronic myeloid leukemia is associated with a BCR/ABL oncoprotein inhibited by imatinib mesylate, the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although experimental studies have clearly demonstrated the efficacy of imatinib, up-to-date data on its effectiveness at the population level are limited. Our study aims to assess the change in disease-specific survival for chronic myeloid leukemia after introducing tyrosine kinase inhibitors in first-line treatment. This study analyzed data from two population-based cancer registries in Italy. Disease-specific survival for chronic myeloid leukemia cases diagnosed before and after the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (February 2002) were calculated up to 10 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox regression models adjusted for sex, age at diagnosis and residency. An interrupted time series analysis was also performed. Between 1996 and 2012, 357 new cases of chronic myeloid leukemia were diagnosed (standardized incidence rate of 1.2 per 100,000 residents), quite constant throughout the period. The interrupted time series analysis showed a gain of 40.4% in 5 years of disease-specific survival for chronic myeloid leukemia (from 47.3, 95%CI 38.5-55.5% to 80.8%, 95%CI 74.5-85.8%) after the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The hazard ratio was 0.36 (95%CI 0.25-0.52) for cases diagnosed after tyrosine kinase inhibitor introduction, with differences per age at diagnosis: <65yo 0.17 (95%CI 0.08-0.39), >74yo 0.41 (95%CI 0.23-0.73). An improvement in survival (hazard ratio 0.66, 95%CI 0.36-1.20) was also observed in cases diagnosed before, and alive at, tyrosine kinase inhibitors introduction. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors increased disease-specific survival both for new and prevalent chronic myeloid leukemia cases. The effectiveness was similar to that observed in trials only in patients ages 65 years or younger.
    The impact of introducing tyrosine kinase inhibitors on chronic myeloid leukemia survival: a population-based study.
    BMC cancer, Nov 2018 [PubMed 30400842]
  • Fatal events during treatment with ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ABL TKIs) have been reported, and there have been concerns of high mortality rate in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia receiving ABL TKIs. The predictive factors of patients treated with ABL TKIs who are at risk of potentially fatal toxicities remain unknown. Although this scenario appears discouraging, the risk of severe toxicity might be predicted by investigating the effect of genetic variation on the disposition of ABL TKIs. Global genomic surveys should be conducted to identify factors contributing to an increased risk of toxicity using multivariable analyses with particular reference to ABL TKIs pharmacokinetics and baseline clinical characteristics.
    [Adverse events of ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia therapy].
    [Rinsho ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology, 2018 [PubMed 30305513]
  • findings using a functional pre-clinical mouse model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), whereby we demonstrated the ability of NOX-A12, combined with the ABL kinase inhibitor, nilotinib, to reduce the leukemia burden in mice to a greater extent than either agent alone. Overall, the data support the idea of using SDF-1 inhibition in combination with targeted kinase inhibition to override drug resistance in oncogene-driven leukemia to significantly diminish or eradicate residual leukemic disease.
    Inhibition of SDF-1-induced migration of oncogene-driven myeloid leukemia by the L-RNA aptamer (Spiegelmer), NOX-A12, and potentiation of tyrosine kinase inhibition.
    Oncotarget, Dec 2017 [PubMed 29299123]

7. ABL1

848 articles, score 443.884

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • The management of chronic myeloid leukemia with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors has evolved chronic myeloid leukemia into a chronic, manageable disease. A patient-centered approach is important for the appropriate management of chronic myeloid leukemia and optimization of long-term treatment outcomes. The pharmacist plays a key role in treatment selection, monitoring drug-drug interactions, identification and management of adverse events, and educating patients on adherence. The combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with unique safety profiles and individual patients with unique medical histories can make managing treatment difficult. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitor-based treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Management strategies for adverse events and considerations for drug-drug interactions will not only vary among patients but also across tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Drug-drug interactions can be mild to severe. In instances where co-administration of concomitant medications cannot be avoided, it is critical to understand how drug levels are impacted and how subsequent dose modifications ensure therapeutic drug levels are maintained. An important component of patient-centered management of chronic myeloid leukemia also includes educating patients on the significance of early and regular monitoring of therapeutic milestones, emphasizing the importance of adhering to treatment in achieving these targets, and appropriately modifying treatment if these clinical goals are not being met. Overall, staying apprised of current research, utilizing the close pharmacist-patient relationship, and having regular interactions with patients, will help achieve successful long-term treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in the age of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, Sep 2018 [PubMed 28580869]
  • Sequential treatment with targeted therapies can result in complex combinations of resistance mutations in drug targets. This mutational complexity has spurred the development of pan-target inhibitors, i.e. therapies for which no single target mutation can cause resistance. Since the propensity for on- versus off-target resistance varies across cancer types, a deeper understanding of the mutational burden in drug targets could rationalize treatment outcomes, and prioritize pan-target inhibitors for indications where on-target mutations are most likely. To measure and model the mutational landscape of a drug target at high resolution, we integrated single-molecule Duplex Sequencing of the ABL1 gene in Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) leukemias with computational simulations. A combination of drug target mutational burden and tumor-initiating cell fraction is sufficient to predict that most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are unlikely to harbor ABL1 resistance mutations at the time of diagnosis, rationalizing the exceptional success of targeted therapy in this setting. In contrast, our analysis predicts that many patients with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) harbor multiple pre-existing resistant cells with single mutants. The emergence of compound mutations can be traced to initial use of an ABL1 inhibitor that is susceptible to resistance from single point mutations. These results argue that early use of therapies that achieve pan-inhibition of ABL1 resistance mutants might improve outcomes in Ph+ ALL. Our findings show how a deep understanding of the mutational burden in drug targets can be quantitatively coupled to phenotypic heterogeneity to rationalize clinical phenomena.
    Single-molecule sequencing reveals patterns of pre-existing drug resistance that suggest treatment strategies in Philadelphia-positive leukemias.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Jul 2018 [PubMed 30042204]
  • The diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is based on characteristic clinical and laboratory findings and the presence of BCR/ABL1 in the blood and/or bone marrow (BM). The utility of BM core biopsy in the workup of patients with CML has been questioned. The potential added value of BM biopsy versus aspiration in the workup of a single-institution series of 508 patients with CML at their initial presentation was systematically assessed. BM biopsy was considered essential when it was needed to establish the disease phase, often because blast counts derived from aspirate smears were misleading because the biopsy specimen was more representative of the disease. BM biopsy was considered helpful if it was needed for other nonessential reasons. In 127 patients (25%), BM biopsy was either essential (109 patients) or helpful (18 patients). Patients with accelerated-phase (AP) or blast-phase (BP) disease often required a biopsy related to essential reasons. High-grade myelofibrosis (MF) was more frequent in patients with AP/BP disease than patients with chronic-phase disease (P = .0005), and the identification of BP disease required a BM biopsy assessment in 75% of the patients (P = .001). A follow-up BM evaluation more often yielded inadequate aspirates in patients with inadequate BM aspirates at the time of their initial diagnosis. BM core biopsy remains valuable in the workup of 25% of patients with CML because it facilitates identification of the disease phase or MF. The initial grade of MF is associated with the disease stage and outcome after therapy. BM biopsy is, therefore, indicated for patients with CML who have AP/BP disease or other findings suggestive of progressive disease. Bone marrow biopsy is valuable in the workup of approximately 25% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia because it facilitates identification of the disease phase and myelofibrosis. Biopsy is indicated in patients with findings suggestive of progressive disease, and bone marrow myelofibrosis, when present, is associated with the disease stage and molecular outcome after therapy.
    Bone marrow core biopsy in 508 consecutive patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: Assessment of potential value.
    Cancer, Oct 2018 [PubMed 30321462]

8. lymphoblastic leukemia

1363 articles, score 436.398

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Sequential treatment with targeted therapies can result in complex combinations of resistance mutations in drug targets. This mutational complexity has spurred the development of pan-target inhibitors, i.e. therapies for which no single target mutation can cause resistance. Since the propensity for on- versus off-target resistance varies across cancer types, a deeper understanding of the mutational burden in drug targets could rationalize treatment outcomes, and prioritize pan-target inhibitors for indications where on-target mutations are most likely. To measure and model the mutational landscape of a drug target at high resolution, we integrated single-molecule Duplex Sequencing of the ABL1 gene in Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) leukemias with computational simulations. A combination of drug target mutational burden and tumor-initiating cell fraction is sufficient to predict that most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are unlikely to harbor ABL1 resistance mutations at the time of diagnosis, rationalizing the exceptional success of targeted therapy in this setting. In contrast, our analysis predicts that many patients with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) harbor multiple pre-existing resistant cells with single mutants. The emergence of compound mutations can be traced to initial use of an ABL1 inhibitor that is susceptible to resistance from single point mutations. These results argue that early use of therapies that achieve pan-inhibition of ABL1 resistance mutants might improve outcomes in Ph+ ALL. Our findings show how a deep understanding of the mutational burden in drug targets can be quantitatively coupled to phenotypic heterogeneity to rationalize clinical phenomena.
    Single-molecule sequencing reveals patterns of pre-existing drug resistance that suggest treatment strategies in Philadelphia-positive leukemias.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Jul 2018 [PubMed 30042204]
  • The lifetime risk of developing leukemia in the United States is 1.5%. There are challenges in the estimation of population-based survival using registry data because treatments and prognosis vary greatly by subtype. The objective of the current study was to determine leukemia survival estimates in the United States from 1995 to 2009 according to subtype, sex, geographical area, and race. Five-year net survival was estimated using data for 370,994 patients from 43 registries in 37 states and in 6 metropolitan areas, covering approximately 81% of the adult (15-99 years) US population. Leukemia was categorized according to principal subtype (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and acute lymphocytic leukemia), and subcategorized in accordance with the HAEMACARE protocol. We analyzed age-standardized 5-year net survival by calendar period (1995-1999, 2000-2004, and 2005-2009), leukemia subtype, sex, race, and US state. The age-standardized 5-year net survival estimates increased from 45.0% for patients diagnosed during 1995-1999 to 49.0% for those diagnosed during 2000-2004 and 52.0% for those diagnosed during 2005-2009. For patients diagnosed during 2005-2009, 5-year survival was 18.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 17.8%-18.6%) for acute myeloid leukemia, 44.0% (95% CI, 43.2%-44.8%) for acute lymphocytic leukemia, and 77.3% (95% CI, 76.9%-77.7%) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. For nearly all leukemia subtypes, survival declined in successive age groups above 45 to 54 years. Men were found to have slightly lower survival than women; however, this discrepancy was noted to have fallen in successive calendar periods. Net survival was substantially higher in white than black patients in all calendar periods. There were large differences in survival noted between states and metropolitan areas. Survival from leukemia in US adults improved during 1995-2009. Some geographical differences in survival may be related to access to care. We found disparities in survival by sex and between black and white patients.
    Adult leukemia survival trends in the United States by subtype: A population-based registry study of 370,994 patients diagnosed during 1995-2009.
    Cancer, Oct 2018 [PubMed 30343495]
  • In developing countries, there is commonly a lack of population-based cancer registries or underreporting, thus not recognizing the true dimensions of the problem. To describe the age and sex frequencies of the major subtypes of leukemias in two hospitals of reference in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. This is a descriptive and retrospective study, based on medical records of two hematology services during January 2007 to October 2014; all cases diagnosed with leukemia were included. A total of 1,432 cases were included with a median age of 38 years (range, two months to 115 years). There were significant age differences between subtypes of leukemia (ANOVA test, p = 0.000): chronic lymphocytic with a mean age of 64.8 years, higher than chronic myeloid (43.4 years) and all acute leukemias (lymphoblastic: 32.6 years, myeloblastic 43.5 years). Of the patients, 51.8% (n = 742) were women, although males predominated in chronic myeloid (57.8%) and lymphocytic (60%) leukemia. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia was the more common variety, FABL2 subtype, followed by myeloid leukemia M4, M2, and chronic myeloid. It is necessary to develop inter-institutional works in order to group data of different population sectors and improve the epidemiological profile of leukemia in Mexico.
    [The age and sex frequencies of patients with leukemia seen in two reference centers in the metropolitan area of Mexico City].
    Gaceta medica de Mexico, 2017 [PubMed 28128805]

9. dasatinib

816 articles, score 379.897

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Dasatinib has shown promising anti-leukemic activity against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, patients receiving dasatinib frequently require dose reductions and treatment interruptions (treatment alteration). ) at steady state were assessed on day 28 of therapy. /D/W were correlated with the incidence of treatment alteration (HR 4.78, 95% CI: 1.01-22.70, p = 0.049; HR 6.17, 95% CI: 1.17-32.50, respectively). /D/W value and/or advanced PS were at a high risk for altered treatment.
    Plasma concentrations of dasatinib have a clinical impact on the frequency of dasatinib dose reduction and interruption in chronic myeloid leukemia: an analysis of the DARIA 01 study.
    International journal of clinical oncology, Oct 2018 [PubMed 29845477]
  • Dasatinib is currently approved for clinical use as a first-line treatment agent for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, only a few clinical trials have been performed to evaluate dasatinibinduced PE following first-line therapy. We investigated the incidence and clinical features of dasatinib-induced PE following first-line therapy in Japanese CML patients of real world clinical practice settings. Among 22 patients, the median age of PE-positive patients was higher than that of PE-negative patients. Major molecular response was achieved in 75% of PE-positive patients and 50% of PE-negative patients. Most patients developed PE more than 1 year after treatment. Appearance of PE is associated with better clinical response during dasatinib treatment, however it is developed at any time. Elderly and high-risk patients tend to develop PE. The clinical features of dasatinib-induced PE following first-line therapy might be late onset and might not immediately follow the increasing of large granular lymphocyte.
    chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Hematology reports, Sep 2018 [PubMed 30283618]
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has evolved into a chronic disease that is managed with tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Now that long-term survival has been achieved in patients with CML, the focus of treatment has shifted to dose optimization, with the goal of maintaining response while improving quality of life. In this review, the authors discuss optimizing the dose of the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib. Once-daily dosing regimens for dasatinib in the first and later lines of treatment were established through long-term (5-year and 7-year) trials. Recently published data have indicated that further dose optimization may maintain efficacy while minimizing adverse events. Results obtained from dose optimization and discontinuation trials currently in progress will help practitioners determine the best dose and duration of dasatinib for patients with CML, because treatment decisions will be made through continued discussions between physicians and patients. Cancer 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.
    Dasatinib dose management for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Cancer, Jan 2018 [PubMed 29370463]

10. myelodysplastic syndromes

1009 articles, score 377.782

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a chronic hematologic disorder that frequently evolves to more aggressive stages and in some cases leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). MDS arises from mutations in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Thus, to define optimal therapies, it is essential to understand molecular events driving HSC pathogenesis. In this study, we report that during evolution of MDS, malignant HSCs activate distinct cellular programs that render such cells susceptible to therapeutic intervention. Specifically, metabolic analyses of the MDS stem cell compartment show a profound activation of protein synthesis machinery and increased oxidative phosphorylation. Pharmacological targeting of protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation demonstrated potent and selective eradication of MDS stem cells in primary human patient specimens. Taken together, our findings indicate that MDS stem cells are reliant on specific metabolic events and that such properties can be targeted prior to the onset of clinically significant AML, during antecedent MDS.
    Characterization and targeting of malignant stem cells in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes.
    Nature communications, Sep 2018 [PubMed 30209285]
  • Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hemopathies that exhibit physical manifestations with clinical consequences of bone marrow failure and inherent risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload (IO) is common in MDS due to chronic transfusion support and disease-related alterations in iron metabolism. IO has been conclusively associated with inferior outcomes among MDS patients. Despite lack of randomized trials showing a survival impact of iron chelation therapy (ICT), ICT is recommended by experts and guidelines for select MDS patients with IO and is often used. The availability of effective oral ICT agents has reignited the controversy regarding ICT use in patients with MDS and IO. Here we summarize the studies evaluating the value of ICT in MDS and suggest a practical approach for use of these therapies. We also highlight controversies regarding use of ICT in MDS and discuss some ongoing efforts to answer these questions.
    To chelate or not to chelate in MDS: That is the question!
    Blood reviews, Sep 2018 [PubMed 29602612]
  • A number of modalities including both pharmaceutical and cell-based treatments have long been tested and developed to prevent and treat relapses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The ability of donor T cells to recognize antigenic structures on leukemic cell surfaces and destroy them is a well-known fact. Based on this fact, the idea of using donor T cells to contribute to the development of adoptive immunotherapy has emerged. Donor lymphocytes are easy to obtain and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) have a simple rational while this treatment modality is an effective example of cellular therapy. The group of chronic myeloid leukemia patients who are more likely to benefit from DLI include: a) patients in the chronic phase of hematologic relapse and b) patients with molecular/cytogenetic relapse. DLI appear to be an appropriate treatment option to be used in combination with conventional chemotherapy or hypomethylating agents in the treatment of post-allo-HSCT relapse for acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, if:) the burden of tumor is low b) the relapse is at a molecular level rather than an overt hematologic relapse c) the patient has favorable cytogenetic characteristics d) time interval between transplantation and relapse is relatively longer (>5 months) e) response could be obtained after salvage therapies. In the event that minimal residual disease (MRD) or increasing mixed chimerism is detected, prompt administration of DLI for prophylactic purposes without waiting for a manifest relapse, was found to be effective in inducing a full donor chimerism and overcoming MRD and eventually preventing a manifest relapse.
    Donor lymphocyte infusion in myeloid disorders.
    Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis, Apr 2018 [PubMed 29754984]


scroll to top