Hits 1 - 10 (out of 6554 matching entities) [12864 mentions] (36 ms):
1. chronic myeloid leukemias

10532 articles, score 4136.273

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • With the global rise in chronic health conditions, health care is transforming, and patient empowerment is being emphasized to improve treatment outcomes and reduce health care costs. Patient-centered innovations are needed. We focused on patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a chronic disease with a generally good long-term prognosis because of the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, both medication adherence by patients and guideline adherence by physicians are suboptimal, unnecessarily jeopardizing treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-centered innovation for patients with CML using a design thinking methodology. The 5 phases of design thinking (ie, empathize, define, ideate, prototype, and test) were completed, and each phase started with the patient. Stakeholders and end users were identified and interviewed, and observations in the care system were made. Using tools in human-centered design, problems were defined and various prototypes of solutions were generated. These were evaluated by patients and stakeholders and then further refined. The patients desired (1) insights into their own disease; (2) insights into the symptoms experienced, both in terms of knowledge and comprehension; and (3) improvements in the organization of care delivery. A web-based platform, CMyLife, was developed and pilot-tested. It has multiple features, all targeting parts of the bigger solution, including a website with reliable information and a forum, a guideline app, personal medical records with logs of symptoms and laboratory results (including a molecular marker and linked to the guideline app), tailored feedback based on the patients' symptoms and/or results, screen-to-screen consulting, delivery of medication, and the collection of blood samples at home. The multifeatured innovation, CMyLife, was developed in a multidisciplinary way and with active patient participation. The aim of developing CMyLife was to give patients the tools to monitor their results, interpret these results, and act on them. With this tool, they are provided with the know-how to consider their results in relation to their personal care process. Whether CMyLife achieves its goal and the evaluation of the added value will be the focus of future studies. CML could become the first malignancy for which patients are able to monitor and manage their disease by themselves.
    The Development of a Web-Based, Patient-Centered Intervention for Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CMyLife): Design Thinking Development Approach.
    Journal of medical Internet research, May 2020 [PubMed 32412424]
  • Increasing evidence demonstrate that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play critical role in regulation of gene expression, which participate in the pathogenesis of cancer, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression profiling of circHIPK3 in CML. We found that circHIPK3 was significantly upregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum samples from CML compared with healthy controls. High circHIPK3 expression predicted a poor outcome of CML patients. Further loss-function experiments suggested the oncogenic role of circHIPK3 in CML. Our findings provide insights on the role of circHIPK3 in the development and treatment of CML.
    Circular RNA circHIPK3 serves as a prognostic marker to promote chronic myeloid leukemia progression.
    Neoplasma, Jan 2020 [PubMed 31307197]
  • Regardless of line of therapy, treatment goals in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are: avoid progression to accelerated phase or blast crisis CML such that patients achieve a life expectancy comparable with that of the general population; avoid adverse events (AEs); and restore and maintain quality of life. The most important prognostic factor for achieving these goals is response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) at key milestones. For patients failing a TKI, a treatment change is mandatory to limit the risk of progression and death. There is currently no precise guideline for patients that fail a second-generation TKI, and there is a paucity of data to guide clinical decision making in this setting. There is, therefore, an unmet need for practical and actionable guidance on how to manage patients who fail a second-generation TKI. Although the term 'failure' includes patients failing for resistance or intolerance, the focus of this paper is failure of a second-generation TKI because of resistance. CML patients who fail their first second-generation TKI for true resistance need a more potent therapy. In these patients, the key issues to consider are the relative appropriateness of early allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or the use of a further TKI. Selection of the next line of treatment after second-generation TKI resistance should be individualized and must be based on patient-specific factors including cytogenetics, mutation profile, comorbidities, age, previous history of AEs with prior TKI therapy, and risk profile for AEs on specific TKIs. This expert opinion paper is not in conflict with existing recommendations, but instead represents an evolution of previous notions, based on new data, insights, and clinical experience. We review the treatment options for patients resistant to second-generation TKI therapy and provide our clinical opinions and guidance on key considerations for treatment decision making.
    Expert opinion-management of chronic myeloid leukemia after resistance to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    Leukemia, May 2020 [PubMed 32366938]

2. imatinib

3484 articles, score 1062.170

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Blast crisis is one of the remaining challenges in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Whether additional chromosomal abnormalities (ACAs) enable an earlier recognition of imminent blastic proliferation and a timelier change of treatment is unknown. One thousand five hundred and ten imatinib-treated patients with Philadelphia-chromosome-positive (Ph+) CML randomized in CML-study IV were analyzed for ACA/Ph+ and blast increase. By impact on survival, ACAs were grouped into high risk (+8, +Ph, i(17q), +17, +19, +21, 3q26.2, 11q23, -7/7q abnormalities; complex) and low risk (all other). The presence of high- and low-risk ACAs was linked to six cohorts with different blast levels (1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 30%) in a Cox model. One hundred and twenty-three patients displayed ACA/Ph+ (8.1%), 91 were high risk. At low blast levels (1-15%), high-risk ACA showed an increased hazard to die compared to no ACA (ratios: 3.65 in blood; 6.12 in marrow) in contrast to low-risk ACA. No effect was observed at blast levels of 20-30%. Sixty-three patients with high-risk ACA (69%) died (n = 37) or were alive after progression or progression-related transplantation (n = 26). High-risk ACA at low blast counts identify end-phase CML earlier than current diagnostic systems. Mortality was lower with earlier treatment. Cytogenetic monitoring is indicated when signs of progression surface or response to therapy is unsatisfactory.
    High-risk additional chromosomal abnormalities at low blast counts herald death by CML.
    Leukemia, May 2020 [PubMed 32382082]
  • The presentation of clinical leptospirosis has been historically associated with animal workers, slaughterhouse workers and medical veterinarians. This association has shifted to be related to flooding events and outdoor activities; few cases are related to high-risk factors found in immunosuppressed patients. Scarcely a handful of cases have serological evidence of immune response against Leptospira serovar Bratislava representing serogroup Australis, a serovar associated with poor reproductive performance in swine and horses, and recently with cats. Herein, we describe a rare clinical presentation of disseminated Leptospira infection in an immunosuppressed 65-year-old woman. She was admitted to the emergency room with fever, bacteraemia, bilateral uveitis and pulmonary involvement. The patient denied outdoor activities; she only had wide exposure to faeces and urine from cats living in her home. Her medical history included idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) diagnosed at the age of 18. She did not respond to medical treatment, and a splenectomy was performed. At age 60, she was diagnosed with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML), and was treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) -Imatinib. The patient voluntarily discontinued the treatment for the last 6 months. After extensive workup, no microorganisms were identified by the commonly used stains in microbiology. The diagnosis was performed through dark-field microscopy, microagglutination test (MAT), Leptospira genus-specific PCR, the IS1500 PCR for identification of pathogenic species, and 16S based sequencing for the genus identification. Immunosuppressed patients may acquire uncommon infections from ubiquitous microorganisms. In this case, serology evidence of exposure to Leptospira serovar Bratislava by MAT and the presence of the Leptospira genus were identified. It should be on mind for the diagnosis in otherwise healthy patients, and thoroughly search on splenectomised patients exposed to animals. Additionally, this report highlights the usefulness of PCR for diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening illness.
    Leptospirosis in an asplenic patient -case report.
    BMC infectious diseases, Feb 2020 [PubMed 32111168]
  • chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients failing to achieve a cytogenetic response on imatinib and suggests that deep molecular response to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors is governed by the biology of more primitive chronic myeloid leukemia cells or extrinsic factors.
    cells from chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with and without deep molecular responses to nilotinib.
    Oncotarget, Apr 2018 [PubMed 29707154]

3. acute myeloid leukemias

2994 articles, score 1043.298

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Germ line predisposition to myeloid neoplasms has been incorporated in the WHO 2016 classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. The new category of disease is named hereditary myeloid disorder (HMD). Although most myeloid neoplasms are sporadic, germ line mutations and familial predisposition can contribute to development of chronic myeloid diseases and acute myeloid leukemia. This finding and upcoming frequent use of genome wide detection of molecular aberrations will lead to a higher detection rate of a genetic predisposition and influence treatment decisions. Hereditary predisposition is responsible for 5-10% of myeloid malignancies. Management of affected patients begins by the awareness of treating physicians of the problem and a precise work up of the patient and family members. Areas covered: This review focuses on current knowledge about germ line predisposition for myeloid neoplasms including diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects in adult patients. Essential information for clinical routine is provided. Expert commentary: Compared to a patient without predisposition, adaptation of treatment strategy for patients with an HMD is often necessary, especially to avoid higher risk of relapse or higher toxicity during chemotherapy or transplantation. Mistakes in choice of a related donor can be omitted. Relatives at risk of developing a HMD need specific surveillance.
    Germ line predisposition to myeloid malignancies appearing in adulthood.
    Expert review of hematology, Aug 2018 [PubMed 29958021]
  • We sought to study whether survival after haplo-identical transplantation is comparable to that after matched unrelated donor transplantation for 822 patients aged 50-75 years with acute myeloid leukemia in first or second complete remission. One hundred and ninety-two patients received grafts from haplo-identical donors (sibling 25%; offspring 75%) and 631 patients from matched unrelated donors aged 18-40 years. Patient and disease characteristics of the two groups were similar except recipients of matched unrelated donor transplantation were more likely to have poor risk cytogenetics and more likely to receive myeloablative conditioning regimens. Time from documented remission to transplant did not differ by donor type. Five-year overall survival was 32% and 42% after haplo-identical and matched unrelated donor transplant, respectively (p-value=0.1). Multivariable analysis showed higher mortality (hazard ratio 1.27, p-value=0.04) and relapse (hazard ratio 1.32, p-value=0.04) after haplo-identical transplantation, with similar non-relapse mortality risks. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was higher after matched unrelated donor compared to haplo-identical transplantation when bone marrow was the graft (hazard ratio 3.12, p-value<0.001), but when the graft was peripheral blood the risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease did not differ by donor type. These data support matched unrelated donor transplant with donors younger than 40 years is preferred.
    Alternative donor transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in patients aged ≥50 years: young HLA-matched unrelated or haploidentical Donor?
    Haematologica, May 2019 [PubMed 31101756]
  • Human Chronic and Acute Myeloid Leukemia are myeloproliferative disorders in myeloid lineage of blood cells characterized by accumulation of aberrant white blood cells. In cancer, the anomalous transcriptome includes deregulated expression of non-coding RNAs in conjunction with protein-coding mRNAs in human genome. The coding or non-coding RNA transcripts harboring miRNA-binding sites can converse with and regulate each other by explicitly contending for a limited pool of shared miRNAs and act as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). An unifying hypothesis attributing 'modulation of expression of transcripts' in this fashion had been defined as 'competitive endogenous RNA hypothesis'. Network built with ceRNAs evidently offers a platform to elucidate complex regulatory interactions at post-transcriptional level in human cancers. Contemplating cancers of human myeloid lineage we constructed ceRNA networks for CML and AML coding and non-coding repertoire utilizing patient sample data. Through functional enrichment analysis we selected the significant functional modules for transcripts being differentially expressed in Blastic phases of each cancer types with respect to Normal. After retrieving free energy of binding and duplex formation of shared miRNAs on ceRNAs, we performed statistical averaging of energy values over the ensemble of populations considering cellular system as in canonical (Iso-thermal) situation. We aimed to shed light on 'Sibling Rivalry' in ceRNA partners from the perspective of statistical thermodynamics, identified major cross-talking tracks and ceRNAs influencing transcripts concerned in myeloid cancer systems. Insights into ceRNA-regulation will shed light on progression and prognosis of human Chronic and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
    Exploring the major cross-talking edges of competitive endogenous RNA networks in human Chronic and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
    Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects, Sep 2018 [PubMed 29902552]

4. leukemias

2912 articles, score 922.007

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • The efficacy of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) as treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relies on immune-mediated graft-versus-leukaemia effects. Previous studies have suggested a strong association between graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurrence and graft-versus-leukaemia effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here, we evaluated the kinetics of relapse rate in correlation with GVHD occurrence after UCBT. The kinetics of relapse rate over time in correlation to GVHD occurrence were assessed by calculating the relapse rate per patient-year within sequential 90-day intervals. The impact of GVHD on relapse and mortality was further studied in multivariate Cox models handling GVHD as a time-dependent covariate. The study included data from 1068 patients given single (n = 567) or double (n = 501) UCBT. The proportion of patients with grade II, III and IV acute GVHD was 20%, 7% and 4%, respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 42%, the cumulative incidence of relapse was 32%, and overall survival was 32% as well. Relapse rates declined gradually over time during the first 30 months after transplantation. There was a possible suggestion that grade II-IV acute (HR = 0.8, P = 0.1) and chronic (HR = 0.65, P = 0.1) GVHD decreased relapse risk. However, grade II-IV acute GVHD significantly increased early (the first 18 months after UCBT) mortality (HR = 1.3, P = 0.02), whilst chronic GVHD increased each early (HR = 2.7, P < 0.001) and late (HR = 4.9, P < 0.001) mortality after UCBT. The occurrence of grade II-IV acute or chronic GVHD each increases overall mortality after UCBT for AML mitigating the possible graft-versus-leukemia effect of GVHD.
    Occurrence of graft-versus-host disease increases mortality after umbilical cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia: a report from Eurocord and the ALWP of the EBMT.
    Journal of internal medicine, Feb 2018 [PubMed 28977716]
  • It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p < 0.01), whereas two- to threefold lower levels of Mg was found in blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.
    Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.
    Biological trace element research, Mar 2017 [PubMed 27511371]
  • Despite the availability of guidelines for the management of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), various issues may prevent their successful implementation. The TARGET survey examined real-world management of CML patients compared with international recommendations. This online survey was completed in 2017. Results were discussed by a Steering Committee (SC) of eight international haematologists, challenges were identified and practical solutions developed. Of the 1008 haematologists invited (33 countries), 614 completed the survey. Gaps regarding treatment efficacy and molecular monitoring were identified. Half of the physicians did not perform three-monthly testing of during the initial 12 months of treatment, citing cost as the major barrier, although they know it should be done. Treatment-free remission was not considered a primary treatment goal or as a priority factor influencing treatment decisions. European Leukemia Net guidelines interpretation was generally acceptable, but awareness regarding management of persistent adverse events was poor. Practical solutions proposed by the SC were mostly focused on enhancing physician education and awareness, or encouraging hospitals to work with the government, in order to improve the quality of BCR-ABL testing. Gaps in current CML management were identified compared with international recommendations, which the proposed practical solutions would help to address.
    TARGET: a survey of real-world management of chronic myeloid leukaemia across 33 countries.
    British journal of haematology, Mar 2020 [PubMed 32227648]

5. BCR

2395 articles, score 555.454

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • The management of chronic myeloid leukemia with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors has evolved chronic myeloid leukemia into a chronic, manageable disease. A patient-centered approach is important for the appropriate management of chronic myeloid leukemia and optimization of long-term treatment outcomes. The pharmacist plays a key role in treatment selection, monitoring drug-drug interactions, identification and management of adverse events, and educating patients on adherence. The combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with unique safety profiles and individual patients with unique medical histories can make managing treatment difficult. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitor-based treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Management strategies for adverse events and considerations for drug-drug interactions will not only vary among patients but also across tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Drug-drug interactions can be mild to severe. In instances where co-administration of concomitant medications cannot be avoided, it is critical to understand how drug levels are impacted and how subsequent dose modifications ensure therapeutic drug levels are maintained. An important component of patient-centered management of chronic myeloid leukemia also includes educating patients on the significance of early and regular monitoring of therapeutic milestones, emphasizing the importance of adhering to treatment in achieving these targets, and appropriately modifying treatment if these clinical goals are not being met. Overall, staying apprised of current research, utilizing the close pharmacist-patient relationship, and having regular interactions with patients, will help achieve successful long-term treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in the age of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, Sep 2018 [PubMed 28580869]
  • Nonadherence is common in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and leads to treatment failure and poor outcomes. Side effects due to treatment are also common in patients with CML. However, no study has investigated the link between side effects and medication adherence for patients with CML in Taiwan. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore the influence of side effects on medication adherence in Taiwanese patients with CML.CML in chronic-phase patients treated with breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors were recruited. We designed a questionnaire to collect baseline patient information, medication adherence (measured using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale), and side effects. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the 3-month early molecular response rate and the 12-month major molecular response rate. Statistical comparisons of different parameters between adherent and nonadherent groups were conducted.Fifty-eight patients were enrolled in this study, and 31% of them had poor adherence. The lack of information about treatment and medication was the major reason for poor medication adherence. Patients who were younger and unmarried were prone to poor adherence. The occurrence of side effects carried no statistically significant influence on adherence. Poor adherence resulted in a poor treatment response (lower 3-month early molecular response rate and lower 12-month major molecular response rate).Poor adherence is common in Taiwanese patients with CML. The main reason for a decrease in the adherence rate is the lack of comprehensive information about treatment and medication, particularly in young and single population. The next urgent step is to educate patients about their treatment and management of side effects to improve adherence and treatment outcome for patients with CML in Taiwan.
    Side effects and medication adherence of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
    Medicine, Jun 2018 [PubMed 29953021]
  • Russia took part in the multicenter population-based study (Europe) and included 6.8% adult patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The objective of this study was to analyze the mortality in the Russian cohort of patients with newly diagnosed CML in the EUTOS PBS observational study. The analyzed cohort consisted of 197 patients (>18 years) with Ph+/BCR-ABL1+ CML diagnosed in the period from October 1, 2009 through December 31, 2012 from 6 regions of Russia. The distribution of the phases of CML were: chronic phase (CP), 93.4% and accelerated phase (AP) + blast crisis (BC), 6% + 0.6%. The median age was 50 years (range, 18-82 years); the male/female ratio was equal. The overall survival (OS) at 5, 6, and 7 years was 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72%-86%), 78% (95% CI, 65%-80%), and 73% (95% CI, 65%-80%), respectively (P < .001). The 5-year OS in patients with AP and BC was 39%. In Russia, the study was prolonged, with a median follow-up of 77 months (range, 0.7-108 months): 141 (71.5%) patients were alive, 47 (24%) patients died, and the status of 9 (4.5%) patients is was unknown. Forty-seven (23.8%) patients died during the follow-up period. The largest number of deaths was observed in the first year after the CML diagnosis: 17 (36%) of 47 cases, 3 of 17 died refusing the CML treatment. At the seventh year of CML therapy, 1 patient died after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The causes of death were: (1) progression of CML to AP/BC in 20 (43%) patients; (2) death in remission in 5 (11%) patients with complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) and/or major molecular response; and (3) death without progression to AP/BC but with signs of leukemia in 22 (46%) patients. The 5-year cumulative incidence of death from all reasons was 20%; the cumulative incidence of CML-related and non-CML-related death at the fifth year was 18% and 11%, respectively. In general, the results of treatment in the Russian population sample of non-selected patients with CML were comparable with the data of the total European cohort. The CML-related deaths prevailed in the first year of CML therapy. The appropriate monitoring and therapy interventions during the first year of CML treatment are apparently important for the long-term treatment results.
    Analysis of the Mortality of Russian Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in the Multicenter EUTOS ELN Population-based Study (EUTOS-PBS).
    Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia, Feb 2020 [PubMed 32192976]

6. lymphoblastic leukemia

1420 articles, score 382.558

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Sequential treatment with targeted therapies can result in complex combinations of resistance mutations in drug targets. This mutational complexity has spurred the development of pan-target inhibitors, i.e. therapies for which no single target mutation can cause resistance. Since the propensity for on- versus off-target resistance varies across cancer types, a deeper understanding of the mutational burden in drug targets could rationalize treatment outcomes, and prioritize pan-target inhibitors for indications where on-target mutations are most likely. To measure and model the mutational landscape of a drug target at high resolution, we integrated single-molecule Duplex Sequencing of the ABL1 gene in Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) leukemias with computational simulations. A combination of drug target mutational burden and tumor-initiating cell fraction is sufficient to predict that most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are unlikely to harbor ABL1 resistance mutations at the time of diagnosis, rationalizing the exceptional success of targeted therapy in this setting. In contrast, our analysis predicts that many patients with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) harbor multiple pre-existing resistant cells with single mutants. The emergence of compound mutations can be traced to initial use of an ABL1 inhibitor that is susceptible to resistance from single point mutations. These results argue that early use of therapies that achieve pan-inhibition of ABL1 resistance mutants might improve outcomes in Ph+ ALL. Our findings show how a deep understanding of the mutational burden in drug targets can be quantitatively coupled to phenotypic heterogeneity to rationalize clinical phenomena.
    Single-molecule sequencing reveals patterns of pre-existing drug resistance that suggest treatment strategies in Philadelphia-positive leukemias.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Jul 2018 [PubMed 30042204]
  • Treatment of relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (RR-ALL) remains a clinical challenge with generally dismal prognosis. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation using sequential conditioning ("FLAMSA"-like) has shown promising results in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia, but little is known about its efficacy in RR-ALL. We identified 115 patients (19-66 years) with relapsed (74%) or primary-refractory (26%) ALL allografted from matched related (31%), matched unrelated (58%), or haploidentical donor (11%). Median follow-up was 37 (13-111) months. At day 100, cumulative incidences of grade II-IV/III-IV acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) were 30% and 17%, respectively. Two-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 25% with 11% extensive cases. Two-year relapse incidence (RI) was 45%, non-relapse mortality was 41%. Two-year leukemia free survival (LFS) was 14%, overall survival (OS) 17%, and GVHD relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 14%. In multivariable analysis, Karnofsky score <90 negatively affected RI, LFS, OS, and GRFS. Conditioning with chemotherapy alone, compared with total body irradiation (TBI) negatively affected RI (HR = 3.3; p = 0.008), LFS (HR = 1.94; p = 0.03), and OS (HR = 2.0; p = 0.03). These patients still face extremely poor outcomes, highlighting the importance of incorporating novel therapies (e.g., BITE antibodies, inotuzumab, CAR-T cells). Nevertheless, patients with RR-T-cell ALL remain with an unmet treatment need, for which TBI-based sequential conditioning could be one of few available options.
    Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation with sequential conditioning in adult patients with refractory or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the EBMT Acute Leukemia Working Party.
    Bone marrow transplantation, Mar 2020 [PubMed 31562398]
  • Hematologists deal every day with high mortality rates of acute leukemia patients. Many times these patients need Intensive Care Unit (ICU) support and some general ICU teams believe that these patients have a much greater chance of dying than patients with other pathologies. In Brazil, data related to mortality rates and ICUs for acute leukemia patients are scarce. Therefore, to assess mortality predictors in patients with acute leukemia admitted to a specialized hematological ICU, we evaluated demographics, supportive care, hospitalization time, disease status, admitting diagnosis, neutropenia, number of transfusions and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)/Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores as possible factors associated with mortality. Data were extracted from the first admission records of 110 patients with acute leukemia admitted to the Hemocentro de Pernambuco (Hemope) ICU between 2006 and 2009. In this retrospective cohort study, 72/110 of the patients were men, and 64/110 were from the metropolitan area of Recife. The patients' age median was 43.5 years (±17.9); 67.3% had acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 32.7% had acute lymphoid leukemia. The main admitting diagnosis in the ICU was sepsis (66.7%). The mean APACHE II score was 18.3. Of the total, 65 (59%) died, and the mortality rate was independently related to longer hospitalization (p<0.001), the increase in the APACHE II score (p<0.038) and having received hemodialysis (p<0.006). Neutropenia, receiving multiple transfusions and using any kind of mechanical ventilation or vasoactive drug on admission were not relevant to mortality. Factors associated with higher mortality rates were: longer hospitalization, increase in the APACHE II score, and use of hemodialysis. With these data, to prevent organ lesions before admission to the ICU, a better strategy might be to reduce mortality for leukemia patients.
    Predictors of mortality among patients with acute leukemias admitted to an intensive care unit specialized in patients with hematological disease at a Brazilian hospital.
    Hematology, transfusion and cell therapy, Apr 2019 [PubMed 31103671]

7. MTTP

1859 articles, score 369.831

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • To analyze the relationship between cytogenetic changes and the progression in the patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) during the treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The chromosome G banding of 150 patients with CML treated in our hospital, was carried out to analyze the karyotype by the 24 h short-term culture or direct method of bone marrow cells, and the point mutation of the ABL kinase area was detected, the relationship between cytogenetic changes and the evolution of the disease course was analyzed. The indirect fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the BCR-ABL fusion gene of 150 patients was positive, out of which 142 cases showed positive Philadelphia (Ph) (94.67%), 8 cases with Ph negative (5.33%). Among 142 cases with Ph positive on the first diagnosis, and 14 cases (9.86%) with additional chromosome abnormality (9.86%), 4 cases (2.82%) with mutation translocation with 124 cases (87.32%), standard translocation t (9; 22) (q34; Q11) were found. Out of the 14 patients with additional chromosomal abnormalities, 8 cases with "main pathmay" abnormalities, 2 case with -Y abnormalities, and 4 cases with "secondary pathway" abnormalities were observed. During TKI treatment, additional chromosomal abnormalities were found in 46 patients with standard translocation and abnormal number of chromosomes, and the incidence of disease progression and point mutation were higher (P<0.05). Compared with patients with the standard translocation, the disease-free survival rate of the patients diagnosed as CML at 1st visit and with additional chromosome abnormality was significantly decreased (P<0.05), but the overall survival rate showed no significantly different (P>0.05). Compared with patients without additional cvtogenetic aberrations, the disease free and overall survival rate of the patients with additional cytogenetic aberrations during the TKI treatment of CML in chronic phase were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Some CML patients may have additional chromosomal abnormalities during the onset and development of the disease, and these patients are at higher risk of disease progression.
    [Analysis of the Relationship between Cytogenetic Changes and Course Evolution of Patients with CML during TKI Treatment].
    Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi, Feb 2020 [PubMed 32027266]
  • Imatinib, the breakpoint cluster region protein (BCR)/Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ABL) inhibitor, is widely used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, imatinib resistance develops in many patients. Therefore, new drugs with improved therapeutic effects are urgently needed. Berberine (BBR) is a potent BCR-ABL inhibitor for imatinib-sensitive and -resistant CML. Protein structure analysis and virtual screening were used to identify BBR targets in CML. Molecular docking analysis, surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays, and thermoshift assays were performed to confirm the BBR target. The change in BCR-ABL protein expression after BBR treatment was assessed by western blotting. The effects of BBR were assessed in vitro in cell lines, in vivo in mice, and in human CML bone marrow cells as a potential strategy to overcome imatinib resistance. We discovered that BBR bound to the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) domain of BCR-ABL. BBR inhibited the activity of BCR-ABL and BCR-ABL with the T315I mutation, and it also degraded these proteins via the autophagic lysosome pathway by recruiting E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LRSAM1. BBR inhibited the cell viability and colony formation of CML cells and prolonged survival in CML mouse models with imatinib sensitivity and resistance. The results show that BBR directly binds to and degrades BCR-ABL and BCR-ABL T315I via the autophagic lysosome pathway by recruiting LRSAM1. The use of BBR is a new strategy to improve the treatment of CML patients with imatinib sensitivity or resistance.
    Discovery of berberine that targetedly induce autophagic degradation of both BCR-ABL and BCR-ABL T315I through recruiting LRSAM1 for overcoming imatinib-resistance.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Feb 2020 [PubMed 32098768]
  • findings using a functional pre-clinical mouse model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), whereby we demonstrated the ability of NOX-A12, combined with the ABL kinase inhibitor, nilotinib, to reduce the leukemia burden in mice to a greater extent than either agent alone. Overall, the data support the idea of using SDF-1 inhibition in combination with targeted kinase inhibition to override drug resistance in oncogene-driven leukemia to significantly diminish or eradicate residual leukemic disease.
    Inhibition of SDF-1-induced migration of oncogene-driven myeloid leukemia by the L-RNA aptamer (Spiegelmer), NOX-A12, and potentiation of tyrosine kinase inhibition.
    Oncotarget, Dec 2017 [PubMed 29299123]

8. myelodysplastic syndromes

1081 articles, score 329.105

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of multiparameter flow cytometry (FC) in patients with idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) and clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance (CCUS). We performed FC using a standardized panel and two different diagnostic algorithms (Ogata, Wells) in a well-characterized cohort of 79 patients with ICUS/CCUS and compared it with a retrospective blinded morphological evaluation and data from targeted next-generation DNA sequencing of 20 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related genes. Our data show that FC has low sensitivity in distinguishing CCUS from ICUS patients (40.5% for Ogata score and 59.5% for Wells score). The Wells score was suggestive of dysplasia in ICUS/CCUS patients with concurrent morphological signs of dysplasia in the bone marrow (following re-evaluation by two hematopathologists) and in CCUS patients with a higher mutational burden. Eight patients with ICUS/CCUS from our cohort progressed to another myeloid malignancy (MDS, acute myeloid leukemia, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia), all showing flow cytometric signs of dysplasia. FC performs poorly in diagnosing CCUS versus ICUS. However, it can potentially provide prognostic information in cytopenic patients by identifying a subgroup of patients with a higher grade of dysplasia, higher mutational burden, and higher risk of progression and, together with mutational screening, also identify a group of patients who might require morphological reassessment of dysplastic changes in their bone marrow.
    The diagnostic and prognostic role of flow cytometry in idiopathic and clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS/CCUS): A single-center analysis of 79 patients.
    Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry, May 2020 [PubMed 31479199]
  • Given the vast phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of acute and chronic myeloid malignancies, hematologists have eagerly awaited the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) into the routine diagnostic armamentarium to enable a more differentiated disease classification, risk stratification, and improved therapeutic decisions. At present, an increasing number of hematologic laboratories are in the process of integrating NGS procedures into the diagnostic algorithms of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Inevitably accompanying such developments, physicians and molecular biologists are facing unexpected challenges regarding the interpretation and implementation of molecular genetic results derived from NGS in myeloid malignancies. This article summarizes typical challenges that may arise in the context of NGS-based analyses at diagnosis and during follow-up of myeloid malignancies.
    Challenges in the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for diagnostics of myeloid malignancies into clinical routine use.
    Blood cancer journal, Nov 2018 [PubMed 30420667]
  • During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in the field of the genetics of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). These comprise a group of chronic myeloid neoplasms with abnormal cell morphology and progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where revolutionary sequencing technologies have played a major role. Through extensive sequencing of a large number of MDS genomes, a comprehensive registry of driver mutations involved in the pathogenesis of MDS has been revealed, along with their impacts on clinical phenotype and prognosis. The most frequently affected molecules are involved in DNA methylations, chromatin modification, RNA splicing, transcription, signal transduction, cohesin regulation, and DNA repair. These mutations show strong positive and negative correlations with each other, suggesting the presence of functional interactions between mutations, which dictate disease progression. Because these mutations are associated with disease phenotype, drug response, and clinical outcomes, it is essential to be familiar with MDS genetics not only for better understanding of MDS pathogenesis but also for management of patients.
    Genetic basis of myelodysplastic syndromes.
    Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and biological sciences, 2020 [PubMed 32161209]

9. dasatinib

907 articles, score 311.760

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • To design, develop, optimize and evaluate sustained-release dasatinib-loaded gold nanoparticles (DSB-GNPs) to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) by using quality by design. In this study, we performed risk assessment, optimization, in vitro characterizations, stability study, drug release studies, cytotoxicity study and in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation. DSB-GNPs of desired size, entrapment, smooth, spherical, stable and sustained drug release for 48 h were achieved. DSB-GNPs exhibited significantly more percentage growth inhibition and enhanced systemic bioavailability compared with pure DSB. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation exhibited that the DSB-GNPs have a potential cytotoxic effect, systemic bioavailability and sustained release making them a promising system of DSB delivery in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Gold nanoparticles for sustained antileukemia drug release: development, optimization and evaluation by quality-by-design approach.
    Nanomedicine (London, England), Apr 2019 [PubMed 30901283]
  • Dasatinib has shown promising anti-leukemic activity against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, patients receiving dasatinib frequently require dose reductions and treatment interruptions (treatment alteration). ) at steady state were assessed on day 28 of therapy. /D/W were correlated with the incidence of treatment alteration (HR 4.78, 95% CI: 1.01-22.70, p = 0.049; HR 6.17, 95% CI: 1.17-32.50, respectively). /D/W value and/or advanced PS were at a high risk for altered treatment.
    Plasma concentrations of dasatinib have a clinical impact on the frequency of dasatinib dose reduction and interruption in chronic myeloid leukemia: an analysis of the DARIA 01 study.
    International journal of clinical oncology, Oct 2018 [PubMed 29845477]
  • Dasatinib is currently approved for clinical use as a first-line treatment agent for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, only a few clinical trials have been performed to evaluate dasatinibinduced PE following first-line therapy. We investigated the incidence and clinical features of dasatinib-induced PE following first-line therapy in Japanese CML patients of real world clinical practice settings. Among 22 patients, the median age of PE-positive patients was higher than that of PE-negative patients. Major molecular response was achieved in 75% of PE-positive patients and 50% of PE-negative patients. Most patients developed PE more than 1 year after treatment. Appearance of PE is associated with better clinical response during dasatinib treatment, however it is developed at any time. Elderly and high-risk patients tend to develop PE. The clinical features of dasatinib-induced PE following first-line therapy might be late onset and might not immediately follow the increasing of large granular lymphocyte.
    chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Hematology reports, Sep 2018 [PubMed 30283618]

10. hematologic malignancies

948 articles, score 301.592

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Not available

Enriched GO Terms

Not available

Abstracts

  • Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) occurs in the blood of approximately 20% of older persons. CHIP is linked to an increased risk of hematologic malignancies and of all-cause mortality; thus, the eligibility of stem-cell donors with CHIP is questionable. We comprehensively investigated how donor CHIP affects outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We collected blood samples from 500 healthy, related HSCT donors (age ≥ 55 years) at the time of stem-cell donation for targeted sequencing with a 66-gene panel. The effect of donor CHIP was assessed on recipient outcomes, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), cumulative incidence of relapse/progression (CIR/P), and overall survival (OS). A total of 92 clonal mutations with a median variant allele frequency of 5.9% were identified in 80 (16.0%) of 500 donors. CHIP prevalence was higher in donors related to patients with myeloid compared with lymphoid malignancies (19.2% v 6.3%; P ≤ .001). In recipients allografted with donor CHIP, we found a high cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD; hazard ratio [HR], 1.73; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.49; P = .003) and lower CIR/P (univariate: HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.97; P = .027; multivariate: HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.98; P = .042) but no effect on nonrelapse mortality. Serial quantification of 25 mutations showed engraftment of 24 of 25 clones and disproportionate expansion in half of them. Donor-cell leukemia was observed in two recipients. OS was not affected by donor CHIP status (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.321; P = .434). Allogeneic HSCT from donors with CHIP seems safe and results in similar survival in the setting of older, related donors. Future studies in younger and unrelated donors are warranted to extend these results. Confirmatory studies and mechanistic experiments are warranted to challenge the hypothesis that donor CHIP might foster cGVHD development and reduce relapse/progression risk.
    Role of Donor Clonal Hematopoiesis in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation.
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Feb 2019 [PubMed 30403573]
  • Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare and aggressive hematologic malignancy arising from plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors. The disease typically manifests in the skin, but it also evolves into a leukemic phase or can be complicated by other myeloid malignancies, especially myelomonocytic tumors. The association between these neoplasms is not fully elucidated. We report a case of BPDCN with a history of cytopenia that was supposed to be chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The patient received intensive chemotherapy and achieved complete remission, but soon relapsed. The successive occurrence of myelomonocytic neoplasm and BPDCN is in accordance with the fact that they evolve from a common cell origin with a multilineage potential for myelomonocytic and plasmacytoid dendritic cell differentiation. This case may shed further light on the mystery of biology and the histogenesis of BPDCN.
    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with a history of cytopenia: A case report.
    Diagnostic cytopathology, May 2020 [PubMed 32374950]
  • Compared with linear RNA, circular RNAs (circRNAs) form a covalently closed circular continuous loop and are highly conserved, stable and tissue-specific. In recent years, circRNAs received considerable attention in the diagnosis, classification, treatment and prognosis of hematological tumors. circRNAs function as microRNA sponges and competitive endogenous RNAs that play an essential role in the translation, regulation and interaction of proteins. The present review discussed the fundamental properties and functions of circRNAs and the latest advancements in the context of circRNAs in the clinical research of hematological malignancies, namely acute and chronic myeloid leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. circRNAs show potential in the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases and can be used as therapeutic targets and biomarkers for disease.
    Role of circular RNA in hematological malignancies.
    Oncology letters, Nov 2019 [PubMed 31611947]


scroll to top