Hits 1 - 10 (out of 6192 matching entities) [11761 mentions] (52 ms):
1. chronic myeloid leukemias

9689 articles, score 4481.634

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Many diseases have their treatment options narrowed and end up being fatal if detected during later stages. As a consequence, point-of-care devices have an increasing importance for routine screening applications in the health sector due to their portability, fast analyses and decreased cost. For that purpose, a multifunctional chip was developed and tested using gold nanoprobes to perform RNA optical detection inside a microfluidic chip without the need of molecular amplification steps. As a proof-of-concept, this device was used for the rapid detection of chronic myeloid leukemia, a hemato-oncological disease that would benefit from early stage diagnostics and screening tests. The chip passively mixed target RNA from samples, gold nanoprobes and saline solution to infer a result from their final colorimetric properties. An optical fiber network was used to evaluate its transmitted spectra inside the chip. Trials provided accurate output results within 3 min, yielding signal-to-noise ratios up to 9 dB. When compared to actual state-of-art screening techniques of chronic myeloid leukemia, these results were, at microscale, at least 10 times faster than the reported detection methods for chronic myeloid leukemia. Concerning point-of-care applications, this work paves the way for other new and more complex versions of optical based genosensors.
    Multifunctional microfluidic chip for optical nanoprobe based RNA detection - application to Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
    Scientific reports, Jan 2018 [PubMed 29321602]
  • Medication non-adherence is associated with poor health outcomes and increased health care costs. Depending on definitions, reported non-adherence rates in cancer patients ranges between 16 and 100%, which illustrates a serious problem. In malignancy, non-adherence reduces chances of achievement of treatment response and may thereby lead to progression or even relapse. Except for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML), the extent of non-adherence has not been investigated in hematological-oncological patients in an outpatient setting. In order to explore ways to optimize cancer treatment results, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of self-administered medication non-adherence and to identify potential associated factors in hematological-oncological patients in their home situation. This is an exploratory cross-sectional study, carried out at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Hematology at the VU University medical center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands between February and April 2014. Hematological-oncological outpatients were sent questionnaires retrieving information on patient characteristics, medication adherence, beliefs about medication, anxiety, depression, coping, and quality of life. We performed uni- and multivariable analysis to identify predictors for medication non-adherence. In total, 472 participants were approached of which 259 (55%) completed the questionnaire and met eligibility criteria. Prevalence of adherence in this group (140 male; 54,1%; median age 60 (18-91)) was 50%. In univariate analysis, (lower) age, (higher) education level, living alone, working, perception of receiving insufficient social support, use of bisphosphonates, depression, helplessness (ICQ), global health, role function, emotional function, cognitive function, social functioning, fatigue, dyspnea, diarrhea were found to be significantly related (p = <0.20) to medication non-adherence. In multivariable analysis, younger age, (higher) education level and fatigue remained significantly related (p = <0.10) to medication non-adherence. This cross-sectional study shows that 50% of the participants were non-adherent. Lower age, living alone and perception of insufficient social support were associated factors of non-adherence in hematological-oncological adult patients in their home-situation.
    Prevalence and associated factors of medication non-adherence in hematological-oncological patients in their home situation.
    BMC cancer, Nov 2017 [PubMed 29121889]
  • We investigated factors that physicians consider of most importance in the selection of second line tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatments (TKIs) in chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML).
    Physicians' attitude towards selection of second line therapy with nilotinib and dasatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
    Health and quality of life outcomes, Oct 2017 [PubMed 29047379]

2. imatinib

3200 articles, score 1322.838

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Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients failing to achieve a cytogenetic response on imatinib and suggests that deep molecular response to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors is governed by the biology of more primitive chronic myeloid leukemia cells or extrinsic factors.
    cells from chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with and without deep molecular responses to nilotinib.
    Oncotarget, Apr 2018 [PubMed 29707154]
  • ± standard deviation. The distribution of +68GA ins/del promoter polymorphism genotypes differed significantly between the thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic chronic myeloid leukemia patient groups (p < 0.0001). Moreover, +68GA del/del and ins/del genotypes in imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia patients were associated with an increased risk of developing thrombocytopenia, with odds ratios 6.5 (95% confidence interval = 2.02-0.89, p = 0.001) and 6.0 (95% confidence interval = 2.26-15.91, p = 0.0002), respectively. Similarly, -909C/A promoter polymorphism genotype distribution also differed significantly between thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic chronic myeloid leukemia patient groups (p = 0.02), and a significantly increased risk of imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia was associated with -909C/A polymorphism mutant homozygous (AA) genotypes the odds ratio being 7.7 (95% confidence interval 1.50 to 39.91, p = 0.009). However, no significant risk of imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia was found to be associated with heterozygous genotype (-909C/A) with odds ratio 1.9 (95% confidence interval = 0.86-4.56, p = 1.14). Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA expression was significantly higher in chronic myeloid leukemia patients compared to controls (p = 0.008). Moreover, patients with imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia had a significantly lower platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA expression, compared to patients without thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). A differential expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA was observed with respect to different +68 GA ins/del and -909C/A polymorphism genotypes. The +68GA deletion allele and -909A allele were significantly associated with lower expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α +68GA del/del, +68GA ins/del, and -909AA genotypes are associated with an increased risk of developing thrombocytopenia in imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukemia patients. A significantly lower platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α messenger RNA expression accompanies the +68GA deletion allele in an allele dose-dependent manner. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α -909AA genotype is also associated with lower expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α. The downregulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α expression may play a causative role in imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia, a common side effect, in the subset of chronic myeloid leukemia patients with platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α +68 GA ins/del, +68 GA del/del, and -909C/A genotypes.
    PDGFRα promoter polymorphisms and expression patterns influence risk of development of imatinib-induced thrombocytopenia in chronic myeloid leukemia: A study from India.
    Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine, Oct 2017 [PubMed 29019285]
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant disorder of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Majority of patients can be effectively treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib, but a portion of patients will develop drug resistance. Accumulated evidences have identified exosomes in cancer as promoters of tumor progression. Herein, we found that exosomes derived from imatinib resistant CML cells can be internalized into sensitive CML cells and confer drug-resistance traits. We also demonstrated a significant higher level of miR-365 in exosomes derived from drug-resistant CML cells compared with those from sensitive ones using microarray and qRT-PCR. The imatinib sensitive CML cells transfected with pre-miR-365 displayed lower chemosensitivity and apoptosis rate compared with controls. We further confirmed that exosomal transfer of miR-365 induced drug resistance by inhibiting expression of pro-apoptosis protein in sensitive CML cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that exosomes mediate a horizontal transfer of drug-resistant trait in chronic myeloid leukemia cell by delivering miR-365.
    Exosomes derived from imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells mediate a horizontal transfer of drug-resistant trait by delivering miR-365.
    Experimental cell research, Jan 2018 [PubMed 29223442]

3. acute myeloid leukemias

2742 articles, score 1169.546

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Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Germline predisposition to myeloid neoplasms has been incorporated in the WHO 2016 classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. The new category of disease is named hereditary myeloid disorder (HMD). Although most myeloid neoplasms are sporadic, germline mutations and familial predisposition can contribute to development of chronic myeloid diseases and acute myeloid leukemia. This finding and upcoming frequent use of genome wide detection of molecular aberrations will lead to a higher detection rate of a genetic predisposition and influence treatment decisions. Hereditary predisposition is responsible for 5-10 % of myeloid malignancies. Management of affected patients begins by the awareness of treating physicians of the problem and a precise work-up of the patient and family members. Areas covered: This review focuses on current knowledge about germline predisposition for myeloid neoplasms including diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects in adult patients. Essential information for clinical routine is provided. Expert Commentary: Compared to a patient without predisposition, adaptation of treatment strategy for patients with a HMD is often necessary, especially to avoid higher risk of relapse or higher toxicity during chemotherapy or transplantation. Mistakes in choice of a related donor can be omitted. Relatives at risk of developing a HMD need specific surveillance.
    Germline predisposition to myeloid malignancies appearing in adulthood.
    Expert review of hematology, Jun 2018 [PubMed 29958021]
  • Allocating patients with acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (HR-AML) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is part of the standard treatment protocol; however, whether allo-HSCT truly improves the outcomes in these patients is debatable. Data on 169 children and adolescents with HR-AML who received their first allo-HSCT in first or second remission between 2000 and 2015 were extracted from a nationwide, Japanese HSCT registry. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 55.2% (95% CI, 46.8-62.9%) and 69.6% (61.4-76.3%), respectively, for all the HR-AML patients. In univariate analysis, the cytogenetic subgroup had a significant impact on both the DFS (P = 0.011) and OS (P < 0.001) rates. In particular, 14 patients with t(16;21) showed an extremely poor outcome. Additionally, older age at allo-HSCT (10-19 years old, P = 0.025), myeloablative conditioning with total-body irradiation (P = 0.019), and grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, P = 0.049) were associated with inferior OS. The donor type and occurrence of chronic GVHD did not affect the outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed t(16;21) to be associated with increased overall mortality (hazard ratio = 4.416, P < 0.001). Because the outcome of patients with certain HR-AML subgroups, such as t(16;21)-positive cases, is extremely poor even with allo-HSCT in remission, a novel therapy is urgently required.
    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for children and adolescents with high-risk cytogenetic AML: distinctly poor outcomes of FUS-ERG-positive cases.
    Bone marrow transplantation, Jun 2018 [PubMed 29959436]
  • Patients with primary refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (RR-AML) have very poor prognosis. Due to limited treatment options, some patients are treated with hypomethylating agents (HMAs) due to their tolerability. Little is known about the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following HMA therapy in this setting. We retrospectively analyzed an international cohort of 655 RR-AML patients who received HMA therapy to study patterns and outcomes with HSCT. Only 37 patients (5.6%) patients underwent HSCT after HMA therapy. The conditioning regimen was myeloablative in 57% and nonmyeloablative in 43%. Patients received matched unrelated donor, matched sibling, haploidentical and mismatched unrelated HSCT in 56%, 24%, 16% and 4% of cases, respectively. Acute GvHD and chronic GvHD were observed in 40% and 17% of patients. While the median OS for the entire cohort of patients was 15.3 months (95% CI 9.5 - 21.7 months), OS reached 29.7 months (95% CI 7.01 - not-reached) for patients who achieved a complete remission (CR) to HMA and no intervening therapies between HMA therapy and HSCT. Our study suggests that HMA therapy can effectively bridge some patients with RR-AML to HSCT.
    Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Following the Use of Hypomethylating Agents among Patients with Relapsed or Refractory AML: Findings from an International Retrospective Study.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Apr 2018 [PubMed 29649620]

4. leukemias

2710 articles, score 1042.821

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • The efficacy of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) as treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relies on immune-mediated graft-versus-leukaemia effects. Previous studies have suggested a strong association between graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurrence and graft-versus-leukaemia effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here, we evaluated the kinetics of relapse rate in correlation with GVHD occurrence after UCBT. The kinetics of relapse rate over time in correlation to GVHD occurrence were assessed by calculating the relapse rate per patient-year within sequential 90-day intervals. The impact of GVHD on relapse and mortality was further studied in multivariate Cox models handling GVHD as a time-dependent covariate. The study included data from 1068 patients given single (n = 567) or double (n = 501) UCBT. The proportion of patients with grade II, III and IV acute GVHD was 20%, 7% and 4%, respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 42%, the cumulative incidence of relapse was 32%, and overall survival was 32% as well. Relapse rates declined gradually over time during the first 30 months after transplantation. There was a possible suggestion that grade II-IV acute (HR = 0.8, P = 0.1) and chronic (HR = 0.65, P = 0.1) GVHD decreased relapse risk. However, grade II-IV acute GVHD significantly increased early (the first 18 months after UCBT) mortality (HR = 1.3, P = 0.02), whilst chronic GVHD increased each early (HR = 2.7, P < 0.001) and late (HR = 4.9, P < 0.001) mortality after UCBT. The occurrence of grade II-IV acute or chronic GVHD each increases overall mortality after UCBT for AML mitigating the possible graft-versus-leukemia effect of GVHD.
    Occurrence of graft-versus-host disease increases mortality after umbilical cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia: a report from Eurocord and the ALWP of the EBMT.
    Journal of internal medicine, Feb 2018 [PubMed 28977716]
  • It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p < 0.01), whereas two- to threefold lower levels of Mg was found in blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.
    Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.
    Biological trace element research, Mar 2017 [PubMed 27511371]
  • Patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) following allogeneic transplant for myeloid leukemias seem to experience a reduced risk of relapse than comparable patients without cGVHD. It is unclear to what extent extramedullary sites are impacted by a graft-versus-leukemia effect. Case Series and review of the literature. We present 2 cases of pediatric patients with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia who developed isolated testicular relapse more than a year following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation despite having had extensive cGVHD. Both patients were off immunosuppression and cGVHD medications when testicular relapse occurred. At time of relapse, these patients were negative for minimal residual disease in the marrow and the marrow contained all donor cells by engraftment studies. No evidence was found for lymphocyte infiltration into the affected testicle in either patient. Although a reduction of marrow relapse can be appreciated in patients with myeloid leukemias and chronic GVHD, this graft-versus-leukemia process may be less robust in extramedullary sites and careful surveillance should be maintained to allow early intervention before overt marrow involvement.
    Isolated Testicular Recurrence of AML in Patients With Chronic GVHD >1 Year Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant.
    Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology, Nov 2017 [PubMed 28991134]

5. BCR

2800 articles, score 1019.221

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Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Nonadherence is common in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and leads to treatment failure and poor outcomes. Side effects due to treatment are also common in patients with CML. However, no study has investigated the link between side effects and medication adherence for patients with CML in Taiwan. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore the influence of side effects on medication adherence in Taiwanese patients with CML.CML in chronic-phase patients treated with breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors were recruited. We designed a questionnaire to collect baseline patient information, medication adherence (measured using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale), and side effects. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the 3-month early molecular response rate and the 12-month major molecular response rate. Statistical comparisons of different parameters between adherent and nonadherent groups were conducted.Fifty-eight patients were enrolled in this study, and 31% of them had poor adherence. The lack of information about treatment and medication was the major reason for poor medication adherence. Patients who were younger and unmarried were prone to poor adherence. The occurrence of side effects carried no statistically significant influence on adherence. Poor adherence resulted in a poor treatment response (lower 3-month early molecular response rate and lower 12-month major molecular response rate).Poor adherence is common in Taiwanese patients with CML. The main reason for a decrease in the adherence rate is the lack of comprehensive information about treatment and medication, particularly in young and single population. The next urgent step is to educate patients about their treatment and management of side effects to improve adherence and treatment outcome for patients with CML in Taiwan.
    Side effects and medication adherence of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
    Medicine, Jun 2018 [PubMed 29953021]
  • The management of chronic myeloid leukemia with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors has evolved chronic myeloid leukemia into a chronic, manageable disease. A patient-centered approach is important for the appropriate management of chronic myeloid leukemia and optimization of long-term treatment outcomes. The pharmacist plays a key role in treatment selection, monitoring drug-drug interactions, identification and management of adverse events, and educating patients on adherence. The combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with unique safety profiles and individual patients with unique medical histories can make managing treatment difficult. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitor-based treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Management strategies for adverse events and considerations for drug-drug interactions will not only vary among patients but also across tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Drug-drug interactions can be mild to severe. In instances where co-administration of concomitant medications cannot be avoided, it is critical to understand how drug levels are impacted and how subsequent dose modifications ensure therapeutic drug levels are maintained. An important component of patient-centered management of chronic myeloid leukemia also includes educating patients on the significance of early and regular monitoring of therapeutic milestones, emphasizing the importance of adhering to treatment in achieving these targets, and appropriately modifying treatment if these clinical goals are not being met. Overall, staying apprised of current research, utilizing the close pharmacist-patient relationship, and having regular interactions with patients, will help achieve successful long-term treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in the age of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, Jan 2017 [PubMed 28580869]
  • Continuing tyrosine kinase inhibitor mediated targeting of the BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein is the standard therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia and allows for a sustained disease control in the majority of patients. While therapy cessation for patients appeared as a safe option for about half of the optimally responding patients, a systematic assessment of long-term tyrosine kinase inhibitor dose de-escalation is missing. We use a mathematical model to analyze and consistently describe biphasic treatment responses from tyrosine kinase inhibitor treated patients from two independent clinical phase-3 trials. Scale estimates reveal that drug efficiency determines the initial response while the long-term behavior is limited by the rare activation of leukemic stem cells. We use this mathematical framework to investigate the influence of different dosing regimens on the treatment outcome. We provide strong evidence suggesting that tyrosine kinase inhibitor dose de-escalation (at least 50%) does not lead to a reduction of long-term treatment efficiency for most patients, which have already achieved sustained remission, and maintains the secondary decline of BCR-ABL1 levels. We demonstrate that continuous BCR-ABL1 monitoring provides patient-specific predictions of an optimal reduced dose not decreasing the anti-leukemic effect on residual leukemic stem cells. Our results are consistent with the interim results of the DESTINY trial and provide clinically testable predictions. Our results suggest that dose halving should be considered as a long-term treatment option for well-responding chronic myeloid leukemia patients under continuing maintenance therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We emphasize the clinical potential of this approach to reduce treatment-related side-effects and therapy costs.
    Reduced tyrosine kinase inhibitor dose is predicted to be as effective as standard dose in chronic myeloid leukemia: A simulation study based on phase 3 trial data.
    Haematologica, Jun 2018 [PubMed 29954936]

6. MTTP

2173 articles, score 635.805

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • findings using a functional pre-clinical mouse model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), whereby we demonstrated the ability of NOX-A12, combined with the ABL kinase inhibitor, nilotinib, to reduce the leukemia burden in mice to a greater extent than either agent alone. Overall, the data support the idea of using SDF-1 inhibition in combination with targeted kinase inhibition to override drug resistance in oncogene-driven leukemia to significantly diminish or eradicate residual leukemic disease.
    Inhibition of SDF-1-induced migration of oncogene-driven myeloid leukemia by the L-RNA aptamer (Spiegelmer), NOX-A12, and potentiation of tyrosine kinase inhibition.
    Oncotarget, Dec 2017 [PubMed 29299123]
  • Basophils form a distinct cell lineage within the hematopoietic cell family. In various myeloid neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia, basophilia is frequently seen. Acute and chronic basophilic leukemias, albeit rare, have also been described. However, no generally accepted criteria and classification of basophilic leukemias have been presented to date. To address this unmet need, a series of Working Conferences and other meetings were organized between March 2015 and March 2016. The current article provides a summary of consensus statements from these meetings, together with proposed criteria to delineate acute basophilic leukemia (ABL) from chronic basophilic leukemia (CBL) and primary forms of the disease where no preceding myeloid malignancy is detected, from the more common 'secondary' variants. Moreover, the term hyperbasophilia (HB) is proposed for cases with a persistent peripheral basophil count ⩾1000 per μl of blood. This condition, HB, is highly indicative of the presence of an underlying myeloid neoplasm. Therefore, HB is an important checkpoint in the diagnostic algorithm and requires a detailed hematologic investigation. In these patients, an underlying myeloid malignancy is often found and is then labeled with the appendix -baso, whereas primary cases of ABL or CBL are very rare. The criteria and classification proposed in this article should facilitate the diagnosis and management of patients with unexplained basophilia and basophil neoplasms in routine practice, and in clinical studies.
    Proposed diagnostic criteria and classification of basophilic leukemias and related disorders.
    Leukemia, Apr 2017 [PubMed 28090091]
  • BCR-ABL-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionised therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia. However, despite the availability and efficacy of this class of agents, lifelong treatment is still required in a significant proportion of patients Areas covered: We give an overview of the currently available BCR-ABL-directed TKIs and other conventional therapies for CML. We proceed to review the current market and some of the scientific rationale for new drug development before outlining a number of novel therapies, considered broadly as immunotherapies and targeted agents. Published English-language literature was reviewed regarding currently available TKIs; clinical trials repositories were reviewed to identify novel agents recently investigated or under active study. Expert opinion: We recommend discussion with patients and enrolment on an appropriate clinical trial where feasible. In situations where no trials are available, or if patients decline enrolment, we recommend use of an appropriate BCR-ABL directed TKI, selected on the basis of an evaluation of patient risk factors and side effect profile. Allogeneic stem cell transplant continues to have a role though this is generally limited to cases with advanced phases of disease or in cases with resistance-conferring mutations.
    Emerging alternatives to tyrosine kinase inhibitors for treating chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Expert opinion on emerging drugs, Mar 2018 [PubMed 29480034]

7. lymphoblastic leukemia

1347 articles, score 433.475

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • In developing countries, there is commonly a lack of population-based cancer registries or underreporting, thus not recognizing the true dimensions of the problem. To describe the age and sex frequencies of the major subtypes of leukemias in two hospitals of reference in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. This is a descriptive and retrospective study, based on medical records of two hematology services during January 2007 to October 2014; all cases diagnosed with leukemia were included. A total of 1,432 cases were included with a median age of 38 years (range, two months to 115 years). There were significant age differences between subtypes of leukemia (ANOVA test, p = 0.000): chronic lymphocytic with a mean age of 64.8 years, higher than chronic myeloid (43.4 years) and all acute leukemias (lymphoblastic: 32.6 years, myeloblastic 43.5 years). Of the patients, 51.8% (n = 742) were women, although males predominated in chronic myeloid (57.8%) and lymphocytic (60%) leukemia. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia was the more common variety, FABL2 subtype, followed by myeloid leukemia M4, M2, and chronic myeloid. It is necessary to develop inter-institutional works in order to group data of different population sectors and improve the epidemiological profile of leukemia in Mexico.
    [The age and sex frequencies of patients with leukemia seen in two reference centers in the metropolitan area of Mexico City].
    Gaceta medica de Mexico, 2017 [PubMed 28128805]
  • We studied leukemia-free (LFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with acute myeloid (AML, n = 790) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 1096) who underwent transplantation between 2000 and 2010 and who survived for at least 1 year in remission after related or unrelated donor transplantation. Analysis of patient-, disease-, and transplantation characteristics and acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was performed to identify factors with adverse effects on LFS and OS. These data were used to develop risk scores for survival. We did not identify any prognostic factors beyond 4 years after transplantation for AML and beyond 3 years for ALL. Risk score for survival for AML includes age, disease status at transplantation, cytogenetic risk group, and chronic GVHD. For ALL, the risk score includes age at transplantation and chronic GVHD. The 10-year probabilities of OS for AML with good (score 0, 1, or 2), intermediate (score 3), and poor risk (score 4, 5, 6, or 7) were 94%, 87%, and 68%, respectively. The 10-year probabilities of OS for ALL were 89% and 80% for good (score 0 or 1) and poor risk (score 2), respectively. Identifying children at risk for late mortality with early intervention may mitigate some excess late mortality.
    Personalized Prognostic Risk Score for Long-Term Survival for Children with Acute Leukemia after Allogeneic Transplantation.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Sep 2017 [PubMed 28527984]
  • This study was aimed to investigate the effects of myeloid antigen expression on hematopoietic reconstitution and disease prognosis in acute lymphocytic leukemia patients post-allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Clinical data of 20 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia in Department of Hematology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from 2008 January to 2014 April were retrospectively analyzed, in which 5 cases were with myeloid antigen (My(+) ALL), while 15 patients were without myeloid antigen expression (My(-) ALL). Differences in prognosis and hematopoietic reconstitution post-allo-HSCT were observed in My(+) ALL and My(-) ALL patients. The results showed that the poor platelet engraftment in patients with My(+) ALL was found more than that in My(-)ALL patients. Three My(+) ALL patients experienced skin chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) including local in 2 cases and extensive in one case, and 3 My(-) ALL patients developed grade I-II acute GVHD, while five patients of My(-) ALL experienced cGVHD including local in 3 cases, extensive in 2 cases. One and two year overall survival rate of My(+) ALL and My(-) ALL patients was 80% and 85.7%, 53% and 69.8% respectively, one and two year progress-free survival rate was 53.3% and 54.7%, 26% and 27.4%, respectively. And there was no significant statistical difference between two groups (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the myeloid antigen expression may impact the platelet engraftment post-transplantation. There is no significant difference between one and two year overall survival rate and progress-free survival rate of My(+) ALL and My(-) ALL patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
    [Effects of myeloid antigen expression on hematopoietic reconstitution and disease prognosis in acute lymphocytic leukemia patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation].
    Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi, Aug 2014 [PubMed 25130829]

8. ABL1

821 articles, score 431.614

Entity Information

Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • The management of chronic myeloid leukemia with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors has evolved chronic myeloid leukemia into a chronic, manageable disease. A patient-centered approach is important for the appropriate management of chronic myeloid leukemia and optimization of long-term treatment outcomes. The pharmacist plays a key role in treatment selection, monitoring drug-drug interactions, identification and management of adverse events, and educating patients on adherence. The combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with unique safety profiles and individual patients with unique medical histories can make managing treatment difficult. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitor-based treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Management strategies for adverse events and considerations for drug-drug interactions will not only vary among patients but also across tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Drug-drug interactions can be mild to severe. In instances where co-administration of concomitant medications cannot be avoided, it is critical to understand how drug levels are impacted and how subsequent dose modifications ensure therapeutic drug levels are maintained. An important component of patient-centered management of chronic myeloid leukemia also includes educating patients on the significance of early and regular monitoring of therapeutic milestones, emphasizing the importance of adhering to treatment in achieving these targets, and appropriately modifying treatment if these clinical goals are not being met. Overall, staying apprised of current research, utilizing the close pharmacist-patient relationship, and having regular interactions with patients, will help achieve successful long-term treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in the age of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, Jan 2017 [PubMed 28580869]
  • Continuing tyrosine kinase inhibitor mediated targeting of the BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein is the standard therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia and allows for a sustained disease control in the majority of patients. While therapy cessation for patients appeared as a safe option for about half of the optimally responding patients, a systematic assessment of long-term tyrosine kinase inhibitor dose de-escalation is missing. We use a mathematical model to analyze and consistently describe biphasic treatment responses from tyrosine kinase inhibitor treated patients from two independent clinical phase-3 trials. Scale estimates reveal that drug efficiency determines the initial response while the long-term behavior is limited by the rare activation of leukemic stem cells. We use this mathematical framework to investigate the influence of different dosing regimens on the treatment outcome. We provide strong evidence suggesting that tyrosine kinase inhibitor dose de-escalation (at least 50%) does not lead to a reduction of long-term treatment efficiency for most patients, which have already achieved sustained remission, and maintains the secondary decline of BCR-ABL1 levels. We demonstrate that continuous BCR-ABL1 monitoring provides patient-specific predictions of an optimal reduced dose not decreasing the anti-leukemic effect on residual leukemic stem cells. Our results are consistent with the interim results of the DESTINY trial and provide clinically testable predictions. Our results suggest that dose halving should be considered as a long-term treatment option for well-responding chronic myeloid leukemia patients under continuing maintenance therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We emphasize the clinical potential of this approach to reduce treatment-related side-effects and therapy costs.
    Reduced tyrosine kinase inhibitor dose is predicted to be as effective as standard dose in chronic myeloid leukemia: A simulation study based on phase 3 trial data.
    Haematologica, Jun 2018 [PubMed 29954936]
  • Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is state of the art in molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this context, maintenance of assay fidelity and detection of technical inaccuracy are crucial. Beside multiple common negative controls for the clinical sample preparations, quality control charts (QCC) are a common validation tool to sustain high process quality by continuously recording of qRT-PCR control parameters. Here, we report on establishment and benefit of QCC in qRT-PCR-based CML diagnostics. The absolute quantification of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts in patient samples is based on coamplification of a serially diluted reference plasmid (pME-2). For QCC establishment the measured Ct values of each pME-2 standard dilution (4-400,000) of a test set resembling 21 sequential qRT-PCR experiments were recorded and statistically evaluated. Test set data were used for determination of warning limits (mean +/- 2-fold standard deviation) and control (intervention) limits (mean +/- 3-fold standard deviation) to allow rapid detection of defined out-of-control situations which may require intervention. We have retrospectively analyzed QCC data of 282 sequential qRT-PCR experiments (564 reactions). Data evaluation using QCCs revealed three out-of-control situations that required intervention like experiment repeats, renewal of pME-2 standards, replacement of reagents or personnel re-training. In conclusion, with minimal more effort and hands-on time QCC rank among the best tools to grant high quality and reproducibility in CML routine molecular diagnosis.
    The benefit of quality control charts (QCC) for routine quantitative BCR-ABL1 monitoring in chronic myeloid leukemia.
    PloS one, 2018 [PubMed 29689094]

9. myelodysplastic syndromes

998 articles, score 380.214

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Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • A number of modalities including both pharmaceutical and cell-based treatments have long been tested and developed to prevent and treat relapses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The ability of donor T cells to recognize antigenic structures on leukemic cell surfaces and destroy them is a well-known fact. Based on this fact, the idea of using donor T cells to contribute to the development of adoptive immunotherapy has emerged. Donor lymphocytes are easy to obtain and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) have a simple rational while this treatment modality is an effective example of cellular therapy. The group of chronic myeloid leukemia patients who are more likely to benefit from DLI include: a) patients in the chronic phase of hematologic relapse and b) patients with molecular/cytogenetic relapse. DLI appear to be an appropriate treatment option to be used in combination with conventional chemotherapy or hypomethylating agents in the treatment of post-allo-HSCT relapse for acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, if:) the burden of tumor is low b) the relapse is at a molecular level rather than an overt hematologic relapse c) the patient has favorable cytogenetic characteristics d) time interval between transplantation and relapse is relatively longer (>5 months) e) response could be obtained after salvage therapies. In the event that minimal residual disease (MRD) or increasing mixed chimerism is detected, prompt administration of DLI for prophylactic purposes without waiting for a manifest relapse, was found to be effective in inducing a full donor chimerism and overcoming MRD and eventually preventing a manifest relapse.
    Donor lymphocyte infusion in myeloid disorders.
    Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis, Apr 2018 [PubMed 29754984]
  • Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia is a chronic myeloid neoplasm occurring mostly in the elderly with overlapping features of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) characterized by chronic monocytosis. Recent progresses in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of CMML have stirred a renewed interest in this clinically heterogeneous disorder. Here, we review the recent progresses in the biology of CMML and how it affects its current and future clinical management.
    CMML: Clinical and molecular aspects.
    International journal of hematology, Jun 2017 [PubMed 28455647]
  • Cytogenetic evolution (CGE) in patients with myeloid neoplasms who relapsed after an allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been evaluated by only few studies. The effect of the CGE on survival of relapsed allo-HCT recipients is not clear. The effect of previously received chemotherapy to induce CGE in this patient population has not been studied. The aims of our study are to (1) characterize the patterns of cytogenetic change in patients with myeloid neoplasms who relapsed after an allo-HCT, (2) evaluate the effect of CGE on survival, and (3) explore the association of CGE with previous chemotherapy (including the lines of salvage therapy, type of induction, and conditioning therapy). Of 49 patients with a myeloid malignancy (27 acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 19 myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS]/myeloproliferative neoplasm [MPN], and 3 chronic myelogenous leukemia) who relapsed after an allo-HCT, CGE was observed in 25 (51%), whereas 24 patients had unchanged cytogenetic findings at relapse. The CGE group carried more cytogenetic abnormalities at original diagnosis. The most frequent cytogenetic change was the acquisition of 3 or more new chromosomal abnormalities followed by acquisition of unbalanced abnormalities, aneuploidy, and emergence of apparently new clones unrelated to the original clone. The CGE cohort had higher proportion of MDS and MPN and fewer patients with de novo AML. Disease risk assessment category showed a trend to higher frequency of high-risk patients in the CGE group, though the difference was not statistically significant. Time from diagnosis to transplantation and time from transplantation to relapse were not different between the CGE and non-CGE groups. CGE and non-CGE cohorts had similar exposures to salvage therapy and to induction chemotherapy, as well as similar conditioning regimens; thus, no particular type of chemotherapy emerged as a predisposing factor to CGE. CGE was associated with significantly shortened post-transplantation and postrelapse survival when compared with those of the non-CGE group (P = .004 and P < .001, respectively). Our results underscore the significance of CGE in progression of myeloid malignancies after an allo-HCT.
    Cytogenetic Evolution in Myeloid Neoplasms at Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Association with Previous Chemotherapy and Effect on Survival.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, May 2017 [PubMed 28189903]

10. dasatinib

784 articles, score 356.181

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Molecular Interaction Network

Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Dasatinib has shown promising anti-leukemic activity against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, patients receiving dasatinib frequently require dose reductions and treatment interruptions (treatment alteration). ) at steady state were assessed on day 28 of therapy. /D/W were correlated with the incidence of treatment alteration (HR 4.78, 95% CI: 1.01-22.70, p = 0.049; HR 6.17, 95% CI: 1.17-32.50, respectively). /D/W value and/or advanced PS were at a high risk for altered treatment.
    Plasma concentrations of dasatinib have a clinical impact on the frequency of dasatinib dose reduction and interruption in chronic myeloid leukemia: an analysis of the DARIA 01 study.
    International journal of clinical oncology, May 2018 [PubMed 29845477]
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has evolved into a chronic disease that is managed with tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Now that long-term survival has been achieved in patients with CML, the focus of treatment has shifted to dose optimization, with the goal of maintaining response while improving quality of life. In this review, the authors discuss optimizing the dose of the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib. Once-daily dosing regimens for dasatinib in the first and later lines of treatment were established through long-term (5-year and 7-year) trials. Recently published data have indicated that further dose optimization may maintain efficacy while minimizing adverse events. Results obtained from dose optimization and discontinuation trials currently in progress will help practitioners determine the best dose and duration of dasatinib for patients with CML, because treatment decisions will be made through continued discussions between physicians and patients. Cancer 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.
    Dasatinib dose management for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Cancer, Jan 2018 [PubMed 29370463]
  • Pregnancy in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia presents a therapeutic challenge. Both dasatinib and nilotinib are indicated for first-line treatment as well as for treatment-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia. Animal studies with dasatinib or nilotinib demonstrate fetal skeletal malformations as well as significant mortality during organogenesis. The goal of this article is to review the experience to date of dasatinib and nilotinib in human pregnancy, specifically dasatinib and nilotinib dose, length of exposure, trimester of use, as well as patient and fetal outcomes. Based on the limited data, both dasatinib and nilotinib may cause fetal harm. Additionally, thorough analysis of the available literature indicates no correlation between dasatinib nor nilotinib dose, length of exposure, trimester of use, and deleterious patient or fetal outcomes can be concluded. Therefore, health care professionals need to regularly counsel women of child bearing potential with chronic myeloid leukemia regarding the risks of taking dasatinib or nilotinib during pregnancy. The safest potential therapeutic options for the management of chronic myeloid leukemia in pregnancy include temporary discontinuation of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor followed by observation or intervention with interferon alfa and/or leukapheresis.
    Experience with dasatinib and nilotinib use in pregnancy.
    Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, Mar 2018 [PubMed 29284357]


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