Hits 1 - 10 (out of 6487 matching entities) [12674 mentions] (43 ms):
1. chronic myeloid leukemias

10387 articles, score 4179.131

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Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • Most researches of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are currently focused on the treatment methods, while there are relatively few researches on the progress of patients' condition after drug treatment. Traditional biomarkers of disease can only distinguish normal state from disease state, and cannot recognize the pre-stable state after drug treatment. A therapeutic effect recognition strategy based on dynamic network biomarkers (DNB) is provided for CML patients' gene expression data. With the DNB criteria, the DNB with 250 genes is selected and the therapeutic effect index (TEI) is constructed for the detection of individual disease. The pre-stable state before the disease condition becomes stable is 1 month. Through functional analysis for the DNB, some genes are confirmed as key genes to affect the progress of CML patients' condition. The results provide a certain theoretical direction and theoretical basis for medical personnel in the treatment of CML patients, and find new therapeutic targets in the future. The biomarkers of CML can help patients to be treated promptly and minimize drug resistance, treatment failure and relapse, which reduce the mortality of CML significantly.
    Detecting the stable point of therapeutic effect of chronic myeloid leukemia based on dynamic network biomarkers.
    BMC bioinformatics, May 2019 [PubMed 31074387]
  • Increasing evidence demonstrate that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play critical role in regulation of gene expression, which participate in the pathogenesis of cancer, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression profiling of circHIPK3 in CML. We found that circHIPK3 was significantly upregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum samples from CML compared with healthy controls. High circHIPK3 expression predicted a poor outcome of CML patients. Further loss-function experiments suggested the oncogenic role of circHIPK3 in CML. Our findings provide insights on the role of circHIPK3 in the development and treatment of CML.
    Circular RNA circHIPK3 serves as a prognostic marker to promote chronic myeloid leukemia progression.
    Neoplasma, Jun 2019 [PubMed 31307197]
  • Two decades after the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), a sizeable portion of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CP) still undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We investigated the indications for allo-HSCT, clinical outcome, management of relapse, and post-transplant TKI treatment in a population-based setting using the Swedish CML registry. Of 118 CML patients transplanted between 2002 and 2017, 56 (47.4%) received allo-HSCT in first CP, among whom TKI resistance was the most common transplant indication (62.5%). For patients diagnosed with CML in CP at <65 years of age, the cumulative probability of undergoing allo-HSCT within 5 years was 9.7%. Overall 5-year survival was 96.2%, 70.1% and 36.9% when transplanted in first CP, second or later CP, and in accelerated phase or blast crisis, respectively. Risk factors for relapse were EBMT score >2 and reduced intensity conditioning, and for death, CP > 2 at time point of allo-HSCT only. Non-relapse mortality for patients transplanted in CP was 11.6%. Our data indicate that allo-HSCT still constitutes a reasonable therapeutic option for patients with CML in first CP, especially those resistant to TKI treatment, providing high long-term survival and low non-relapse mortality.
    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia in the TKI era: population-based data from the Swedish CML registry.
    Bone marrow transplantation, Nov 2019 [PubMed 30962502]

2. imatinib

3441 articles, score 1094.492

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Abstracts

  • chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients failing to achieve a cytogenetic response on imatinib and suggests that deep molecular response to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors is governed by the biology of more primitive chronic myeloid leukemia cells or extrinsic factors.
    cells from chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with and without deep molecular responses to nilotinib.
    Oncotarget, Apr 2018 [PubMed 29707154]
  • The mathematical design of optimal therapies to fight cancer is an important research field in today's Biomathematics and Biomedicine given its relevance to formulate patient-specific treatments. Until now, however, cancer optimal therapies have considered that malignancy exclusively depends on the drug concentration and the number of cancer cells, ignoring that the faster the cancer grows the worse the cancer is, and that early drug doses are more prejudicial. Here, we analyze how optimal therapies are affected when the time evolution of treated cancer is envisaged as an additional element determining malignancy, analyzing in detail the implications for imatinib-treated Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. Taking as reference a mathematical model describing Chronic Myeloid Leukemia dynamics, we design an optimal therapy problem by modifying the usual malignancy objective function, unaware of any temporal dimension of cancer malignance. In particular, we introduce a time valuation factor capturing the increase of malignancy associated to the quick development of the disease and the persistent negative effects of initial drug doses. After assigning values to the parameters involved, we solve and simulate the model with and without the new time valuation factor, comparing the results for the drug doses and the evolution of the disease. Our computational simulations unequivocally show that the consideration of a time valuation factor capturing the higher malignancy associated with early growth of cancer and drug administration allows more efficient therapies to be designed. More specifically, when this time valuation factor is incorporated into the objective function, the optimal drug doses are lower, and do not involve medically relevant increases in the number of cancer cells or in the disease duration. In the light of our simulations and as biomedical evidence strongly suggests, the existence of a time valuation factor affecting malignancy in treated cancer cannot be ignored when designing cancer optimal therapies. Indeed, the consideration of a time valuation factor modulating malignancy results in significant gains of efficiency in the optimal therapy with relevant implications from the biomedical perspective, specially when designing patient-specific treatments.
    The effects of time valuation in cancer optimal therapies: a study of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Theoretical biology & medical modelling, May 2019 [PubMed 31138288]
  • To determine potential predictors of long-term survival in a large set of Hispanic (Mexican) patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with imatinib. We conducted an analysis with data from 411 patients with CML treated at the National Cancer Institute - Mexico, between January 2000 and December 2016. We found a median age at diagnosis of 40 years (range: 18-84 years). The survival rate at 150 months was 82.02%, and we found that phase at diagnosis (β: 0.447, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 0.088, 0.806; P = 0.015), prognostic scales (Sokal [P = 0.021] and Hasford [β: 0.369, 95% CI: 0.049, 0.688; P = 0.024]) and hematological response at 3 months (β: 0.717, 95% CI: 0.443, 0.991; P < 0.001), but not molecular response (P = 0.834 for 6 months, P = 0.927 for 12 months, P = 0.250 for 18 months), were independently associated with overall survival. Survival analysis in subsets, according to the initial phase (chronic, accelerated and blastic phase) did not show any effect according to prognostic scales (P > 0.05). Mexican patients with CML have repeatedly been diagnosed at earlier ages. Prognostic factors in CML may differ according to the ethnic or geographical context. We found that phase at diagnosis, prognostic scale and hematological response at 3 months were independent predictors of survival.
    Prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib at the National Cancer Institute - Mexico, from 2000 to 2016.
    Cancer medicine, Jun 2019 [PubMed 31050162]

3. acute myeloid leukemias

2949 articles, score 1064.617

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Abstracts

  • Germ line predisposition to myeloid neoplasms has been incorporated in the WHO 2016 classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. The new category of disease is named hereditary myeloid disorder (HMD). Although most myeloid neoplasms are sporadic, germ line mutations and familial predisposition can contribute to development of chronic myeloid diseases and acute myeloid leukemia. This finding and upcoming frequent use of genome wide detection of molecular aberrations will lead to a higher detection rate of a genetic predisposition and influence treatment decisions. Hereditary predisposition is responsible for 5-10% of myeloid malignancies. Management of affected patients begins by the awareness of treating physicians of the problem and a precise work up of the patient and family members. Areas covered: This review focuses on current knowledge about germ line predisposition for myeloid neoplasms including diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects in adult patients. Essential information for clinical routine is provided. Expert commentary: Compared to a patient without predisposition, adaptation of treatment strategy for patients with an HMD is often necessary, especially to avoid higher risk of relapse or higher toxicity during chemotherapy or transplantation. Mistakes in choice of a related donor can be omitted. Relatives at risk of developing a HMD need specific surveillance.
    Germ line predisposition to myeloid malignancies appearing in adulthood.
    Expert review of hematology, Aug 2018 [PubMed 29958021]
  • We sought to study whether survival after haplo-identical transplantation is comparable to that after matched unrelated donor transplantation for 822 patients aged 50-75 years with acute myeloid leukemia in first or second complete remission. One hundred and ninety-two patients received grafts from haplo-identical donors (sibling 25%; offspring 75%) and 631 patients from matched unrelated donors aged 18-40 years. Patient and disease characteristics of the two groups were similar except recipients of matched unrelated donor transplantation were more likely to have poor risk cytogenetics and more likely to receive myeloablative conditioning regimens. Time from documented remission to transplant did not differ by donor type. Five-year overall survival was 32% and 42% after haplo-identical and matched unrelated donor transplant, respectively (p-value=0.1). Multivariable analysis showed higher mortality (hazard ratio 1.27, p-value=0.04) and relapse (hazard ratio 1.32, p-value=0.04) after haplo-identical transplantation, with similar non-relapse mortality risks. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was higher after matched unrelated donor compared to haplo-identical transplantation when bone marrow was the graft (hazard ratio 3.12, p-value<0.001), but when the graft was peripheral blood the risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease did not differ by donor type. These data support matched unrelated donor transplant with donors younger than 40 years is preferred.
    Alternative donor transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in patients aged ≥50 years: young HLA-matched unrelated or haploidentical Donor?
    Haematologica, May 2019 [PubMed 31101756]
  • Human Chronic and Acute Myeloid Leukemia are myeloproliferative disorders in myeloid lineage of blood cells characterized by accumulation of aberrant white blood cells. In cancer, the anomalous transcriptome includes deregulated expression of non-coding RNAs in conjunction with protein-coding mRNAs in human genome. The coding or non-coding RNA transcripts harboring miRNA-binding sites can converse with and regulate each other by explicitly contending for a limited pool of shared miRNAs and act as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). An unifying hypothesis attributing 'modulation of expression of transcripts' in this fashion had been defined as 'competitive endogenous RNA hypothesis'. Network built with ceRNAs evidently offers a platform to elucidate complex regulatory interactions at post-transcriptional level in human cancers. Contemplating cancers of human myeloid lineage we constructed ceRNA networks for CML and AML coding and non-coding repertoire utilizing patient sample data. Through functional enrichment analysis we selected the significant functional modules for transcripts being differentially expressed in Blastic phases of each cancer types with respect to Normal. After retrieving free energy of binding and duplex formation of shared miRNAs on ceRNAs, we performed statistical averaging of energy values over the ensemble of populations considering cellular system as in canonical (Iso-thermal) situation. We aimed to shed light on 'Sibling Rivalry' in ceRNA partners from the perspective of statistical thermodynamics, identified major cross-talking tracks and ceRNAs influencing transcripts concerned in myeloid cancer systems. Insights into ceRNA-regulation will shed light on progression and prognosis of human Chronic and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
    Exploring the major cross-talking edges of competitive endogenous RNA networks in human Chronic and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
    Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects, Sep 2018 [PubMed 29902552]

4. leukemias

2883 articles, score 943.223

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Abstracts

  • The efficacy of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) as treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relies on immune-mediated graft-versus-leukaemia effects. Previous studies have suggested a strong association between graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurrence and graft-versus-leukaemia effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here, we evaluated the kinetics of relapse rate in correlation with GVHD occurrence after UCBT. The kinetics of relapse rate over time in correlation to GVHD occurrence were assessed by calculating the relapse rate per patient-year within sequential 90-day intervals. The impact of GVHD on relapse and mortality was further studied in multivariate Cox models handling GVHD as a time-dependent covariate. The study included data from 1068 patients given single (n = 567) or double (n = 501) UCBT. The proportion of patients with grade II, III and IV acute GVHD was 20%, 7% and 4%, respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 42%, the cumulative incidence of relapse was 32%, and overall survival was 32% as well. Relapse rates declined gradually over time during the first 30 months after transplantation. There was a possible suggestion that grade II-IV acute (HR = 0.8, P = 0.1) and chronic (HR = 0.65, P = 0.1) GVHD decreased relapse risk. However, grade II-IV acute GVHD significantly increased early (the first 18 months after UCBT) mortality (HR = 1.3, P = 0.02), whilst chronic GVHD increased each early (HR = 2.7, P < 0.001) and late (HR = 4.9, P < 0.001) mortality after UCBT. The occurrence of grade II-IV acute or chronic GVHD each increases overall mortality after UCBT for AML mitigating the possible graft-versus-leukemia effect of GVHD.
    Occurrence of graft-versus-host disease increases mortality after umbilical cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia: a report from Eurocord and the ALWP of the EBMT.
    Journal of internal medicine, Feb 2018 [PubMed 28977716]
  • It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p < 0.01), whereas two- to threefold lower levels of Mg was found in blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.
    Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.
    Biological trace element research, Mar 2017 [PubMed 27511371]
  • The prognosis of patients with blast crisis (BC) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is still dismal. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation represents the only curative treatment option, but data on transplant outcomes are scarce. We therefore conducted a retrospective, registry-based study of adult patients allografted for BC CML, focusing on patients with active disease at transplant and pretransplant prognostic factors. One hundred seventy patients allografted for BC CML after tyrosine kinase inhibitor pretreatment between 2004 and 2016 were analyzed. Before transplant, 95 patients were in remission, whereas 75 patients had active BC. In multivariable analysis of the entire cohort, active BC at transplant was the strongest factor associated with decreased overall survival (hazrd ratio, 1.87; P = .010) and shorter leukemia-free survival (LFS; hazard ratio, 1.69; P = .017). For patients with BC in remission at transplant, advanced age (≥45 years), lower performance status (≤80%), longer interval from diagnosis BC to transplant (>12 months), myeloablative conditioning, and unrelated donor (UD) transplant were risk factors for inferior survival. In patients with active BC, only UD transplant was significantly associated with prolonged LFS and trended toward improved overall survival. In summary, survival of patients allografted for BC CML was strongly dependent on pretransplant remission status. In patients with remission of BC, conventional prognostic factors remained the major determinants of outcome, whereas in those with active BC at transplant, UD transplant was associated with prolonged LFS in our study.
    Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Blast Crisis Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in the Era of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: A Retrospective Study by the EBMT Chronic Malignancies Working Party.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Oct 2019 [PubMed 31271884]

5. BCR

2411 articles, score 596.607

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Abstracts

  • The management of chronic myeloid leukemia with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors has evolved chronic myeloid leukemia into a chronic, manageable disease. A patient-centered approach is important for the appropriate management of chronic myeloid leukemia and optimization of long-term treatment outcomes. The pharmacist plays a key role in treatment selection, monitoring drug-drug interactions, identification and management of adverse events, and educating patients on adherence. The combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with unique safety profiles and individual patients with unique medical histories can make managing treatment difficult. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitor-based treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Management strategies for adverse events and considerations for drug-drug interactions will not only vary among patients but also across tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Drug-drug interactions can be mild to severe. In instances where co-administration of concomitant medications cannot be avoided, it is critical to understand how drug levels are impacted and how subsequent dose modifications ensure therapeutic drug levels are maintained. An important component of patient-centered management of chronic myeloid leukemia also includes educating patients on the significance of early and regular monitoring of therapeutic milestones, emphasizing the importance of adhering to treatment in achieving these targets, and appropriately modifying treatment if these clinical goals are not being met. Overall, staying apprised of current research, utilizing the close pharmacist-patient relationship, and having regular interactions with patients, will help achieve successful long-term treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in the age of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, Sep 2018 [PubMed 28580869]
  • Nonadherence is common in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and leads to treatment failure and poor outcomes. Side effects due to treatment are also common in patients with CML. However, no study has investigated the link between side effects and medication adherence for patients with CML in Taiwan. Therefore, the aim of our study was to explore the influence of side effects on medication adherence in Taiwanese patients with CML.CML in chronic-phase patients treated with breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors were recruited. We designed a questionnaire to collect baseline patient information, medication adherence (measured using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale), and side effects. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the 3-month early molecular response rate and the 12-month major molecular response rate. Statistical comparisons of different parameters between adherent and nonadherent groups were conducted.Fifty-eight patients were enrolled in this study, and 31% of them had poor adherence. The lack of information about treatment and medication was the major reason for poor medication adherence. Patients who were younger and unmarried were prone to poor adherence. The occurrence of side effects carried no statistically significant influence on adherence. Poor adherence resulted in a poor treatment response (lower 3-month early molecular response rate and lower 12-month major molecular response rate).Poor adherence is common in Taiwanese patients with CML. The main reason for a decrease in the adherence rate is the lack of comprehensive information about treatment and medication, particularly in young and single population. The next urgent step is to educate patients about their treatment and management of side effects to improve adherence and treatment outcome for patients with CML in Taiwan.
    Side effects and medication adherence of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
    Medicine, Jun 2018 [PubMed 29953021]
  • Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with breakpoint cluster region-Abelson tyrosine kinase inhibitors are likely to survive in excess of 20 years after diagnosis. New challenges appear as we consider life after the disease, including professional challenges and the social reintegration of patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of chronic myeloid leukemia on employment within 2 years after diagnosis. This prospective, observational study included patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia and treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Two populations were defined as patients who reported modifications in their professional activity during the study (Acti-Pro+) and patients who did not report a modification (Acti-Pro-). Cancer survivors received a self-assessment questionnaire. The primary endpoint was to determine the professional status of patients. One hundred patients completed the questionnaire. Sixty-six patients out of 100 reported professional activity within 2 years after their diagnosis. During the 2 years after the diagnosis, 65.2% (95% confidence interval (CI), 53.7-76.7) of patients faced modifications in their professional activity due to chronic myeloid leukemia or adverse effects of drug treatments (group Acti-Pro+); in contrast, 34.8% of patients did not report any impact on their occupational activity (group Acti-Pro-). Among modifications to work organization, a change in the number of working hours was the most represented. Other modifications comprised changes in status or work pace. A majority of chronic myeloid leukemia patients face professional consequences of their disease and treatments. Our findings suggest that adverse drug reactions are a major factor affecting the occurrence of work modifications in this context.
    The impact of chronic myeloid leukemia on employment: the French prospective study.
    Annals of hematology, Mar 2019 [PubMed 30446803]

6. lymphoblastic leukemia

1410 articles, score 391.703

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Abstracts

  • Sequential treatment with targeted therapies can result in complex combinations of resistance mutations in drug targets. This mutational complexity has spurred the development of pan-target inhibitors, i.e. therapies for which no single target mutation can cause resistance. Since the propensity for on- versus off-target resistance varies across cancer types, a deeper understanding of the mutational burden in drug targets could rationalize treatment outcomes, and prioritize pan-target inhibitors for indications where on-target mutations are most likely. To measure and model the mutational landscape of a drug target at high resolution, we integrated single-molecule Duplex Sequencing of the ABL1 gene in Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) leukemias with computational simulations. A combination of drug target mutational burden and tumor-initiating cell fraction is sufficient to predict that most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are unlikely to harbor ABL1 resistance mutations at the time of diagnosis, rationalizing the exceptional success of targeted therapy in this setting. In contrast, our analysis predicts that many patients with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) harbor multiple pre-existing resistant cells with single mutants. The emergence of compound mutations can be traced to initial use of an ABL1 inhibitor that is susceptible to resistance from single point mutations. These results argue that early use of therapies that achieve pan-inhibition of ABL1 resistance mutants might improve outcomes in Ph+ ALL. Our findings show how a deep understanding of the mutational burden in drug targets can be quantitatively coupled to phenotypic heterogeneity to rationalize clinical phenomena.
    Single-molecule sequencing reveals patterns of pre-existing drug resistance that suggest treatment strategies in Philadelphia-positive leukemias.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Jul 2018 [PubMed 30042204]
  • Hematologists deal every day with high mortality rates of acute leukemia patients. Many times these patients need Intensive Care Unit (ICU) support and some general ICU teams believe that these patients have a much greater chance of dying than patients with other pathologies. In Brazil, data related to mortality rates and ICUs for acute leukemia patients are scarce. Therefore, to assess mortality predictors in patients with acute leukemia admitted to a specialized hematological ICU, we evaluated demographics, supportive care, hospitalization time, disease status, admitting diagnosis, neutropenia, number of transfusions and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE)/Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores as possible factors associated with mortality. Data were extracted from the first admission records of 110 patients with acute leukemia admitted to the Hemocentro de Pernambuco (Hemope) ICU between 2006 and 2009. In this retrospective cohort study, 72/110 of the patients were men, and 64/110 were from the metropolitan area of Recife. The patients' age median was 43.5 years (±17.9); 67.3% had acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 32.7% had acute lymphoid leukemia. The main admitting diagnosis in the ICU was sepsis (66.7%). The mean APACHE II score was 18.3. Of the total, 65 (59%) died, and the mortality rate was independently related to longer hospitalization (p<0.001), the increase in the APACHE II score (p<0.038) and having received hemodialysis (p<0.006). Neutropenia, receiving multiple transfusions and using any kind of mechanical ventilation or vasoactive drug on admission were not relevant to mortality. Factors associated with higher mortality rates were: longer hospitalization, increase in the APACHE II score, and use of hemodialysis. With these data, to prevent organ lesions before admission to the ICU, a better strategy might be to reduce mortality for leukemia patients.
    Predictors of mortality among patients with acute leukemias admitted to an intensive care unit specialized in patients with hematological disease at a Brazilian hospital.
    Hematology, transfusion and cell therapy, Apr 2019 [PubMed 31103671]
  • There are different BCR-ABL1 fusion genes that are translated into proteins that are different from each other, yet all leukemogenic, causing chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Their frequency has never been systematically investigated. In a series of 45503 newly diagnosed CML patients reported from 45 countries, it was found that the proportion of e13a2 (also known as b2a2) and of e14a2 (also known as b3a2), including the cases co-expressing e14a2 and e13a2, was 37.9% and 62.1%, respectively. The proportion of these two transcripts was correlated with gender, e13a2 being more frequent in males (39.2%) than in females (36.2%), was correlated with age, decreasing from 39.6% in children and adolescents down to 31.6% in patients ≥ 80 years old, and was not constant worldwide. Other, rare transcripts were reported in 666/34561 patients (1.93%). The proportion of rare transcripts was associated with gender (2.27% in females and 1.69% in males) and with age (from 1.79% in children and adolescents up to 3.84% in patients ≥ 80 years old). These data show that the differences in proportion are not by chance. This is important, as the transcript type is a variable that is suspected to be of prognostic importance for response to treatment, outcome of treatment, and rate of treatment-free remission.
    The proportion of different BCR-ABL1 transcript types in chronic myeloid leukemia. An international overview.
    Leukemia, May 2019 [PubMed 30675008]

7. MTTP

1869 articles, score 389.912

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Abstracts

  • findings using a functional pre-clinical mouse model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), whereby we demonstrated the ability of NOX-A12, combined with the ABL kinase inhibitor, nilotinib, to reduce the leukemia burden in mice to a greater extent than either agent alone. Overall, the data support the idea of using SDF-1 inhibition in combination with targeted kinase inhibition to override drug resistance in oncogene-driven leukemia to significantly diminish or eradicate residual leukemic disease.
    Inhibition of SDF-1-induced migration of oncogene-driven myeloid leukemia by the L-RNA aptamer (Spiegelmer), NOX-A12, and potentiation of tyrosine kinase inhibition.
    Oncotarget, Dec 2017 [PubMed 29299123]
  • Basophils form a distinct cell lineage within the hematopoietic cell family. In various myeloid neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia, basophilia is frequently seen. Acute and chronic basophilic leukemias, albeit rare, have also been described. However, no generally accepted criteria and classification of basophilic leukemias have been presented to date. To address this unmet need, a series of Working Conferences and other meetings were organized between March 2015 and March 2016. The current article provides a summary of consensus statements from these meetings, together with proposed criteria to delineate acute basophilic leukemia (ABL) from chronic basophilic leukemia (CBL) and primary forms of the disease where no preceding myeloid malignancy is detected, from the more common 'secondary' variants. Moreover, the term hyperbasophilia (HB) is proposed for cases with a persistent peripheral basophil count ⩾1000 per μl of blood. This condition, HB, is highly indicative of the presence of an underlying myeloid neoplasm. Therefore, HB is an important checkpoint in the diagnostic algorithm and requires a detailed hematologic investigation. In these patients, an underlying myeloid malignancy is often found and is then labeled with the appendix -baso, whereas primary cases of ABL or CBL are very rare. The criteria and classification proposed in this article should facilitate the diagnosis and management of patients with unexplained basophilia and basophil neoplasms in routine practice, and in clinical studies.
    Proposed diagnostic criteria and classification of basophilic leukemias and related disorders.
    Leukemia, Apr 2017 [PubMed 28090091]
  • Although extensive use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has resulted in high and durable response rate and prolonged survival time in patients with BCR-ABL1 positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute leukemia, relapse and drug resistance still remain big challenges for clinicians. Monitoring the expression of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and identifying ABL kinase mutations are effective means to predict disease relapse and resistance. However, the prognostic impact of BCR-ABL1 signal patterns detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) remains largely unaddressed. BCR-ABL1 signal patterns were analyzed using FISH in 243 CML-chronic phase (CML-CP), 17 CML-blast phase (CML-BP) and 52 BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. The patterns of BCR-ABL1 signals presented complexity and diversity. A total of 12 BCR-ABL1 signals were observed in this cohort, including 1R1G2F, 1R1G1F, 2R1G1F, 1R2G1F, 2R2G1F, 1R2G2F, 1R1G3F, 1G3F, 2G3F, 1G4F, 1R1G4F and 1R4F. Complex BCR-ABL1 signal patterns (≥ two types of signal patterns) were observed in 52.9% (n = 9) of the CML-BP patients, followed by 30.8% (n = 16) of the ALL patients and only 2.1% (n = 5) of the CML-CP patients. More importantly, five clonal evolution patterns related to disease progression and relapse were observed, and patients with complex BCR-ABL1 signal patterns had a poorer overall survival (OS) time compared with those with single patterns (5.0 vs.15.0 months, p = 0.006). Our data showed that complex BCR-ABL1 signal patterns were associated with leukemic clonal evolution and poorer prognosis in BCR-ABL1 positive leukemia. Monitoring BCR-ABL1 signal patterns might be an effective means to provide prognostic guidance and treatment choices for these patients.
    Heterogeneous BCR-ABL1 signal patterns identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization are associated with leukemic clonal evolution and poorer prognosis in BCR-ABL1 positive leukemia.
    BMC cancer, Oct 2019 [PubMed 31594548]

8. myelodysplastic syndromes

1067 articles, score 332.744

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Abstracts

  • Given the vast phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of acute and chronic myeloid malignancies, hematologists have eagerly awaited the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) into the routine diagnostic armamentarium to enable a more differentiated disease classification, risk stratification, and improved therapeutic decisions. At present, an increasing number of hematologic laboratories are in the process of integrating NGS procedures into the diagnostic algorithms of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Inevitably accompanying such developments, physicians and molecular biologists are facing unexpected challenges regarding the interpretation and implementation of molecular genetic results derived from NGS in myeloid malignancies. This article summarizes typical challenges that may arise in the context of NGS-based analyses at diagnosis and during follow-up of myeloid malignancies.
    Challenges in the introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for diagnostics of myeloid malignancies into clinical routine use.
    Blood cancer journal, Nov 2018 [PubMed 30420667]
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of multiparameter flow cytometry (FC) in patients with idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) and clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance (CCUS). We performed FC using a standardized panel and two different diagnostic algorithms (Ogata, Wells) in a well-characterized cohort of 79 patients with ICUS/CCUS and compared it with a retrospective blinded morphological evaluation and data from targeted next-generation DNA sequencing of 20 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related genes. Our data show that FC has low sensitivity in distinguishing CCUS from ICUS patients (40.5% for Ogata score and 59.5% for Wells score). The Wells score was suggestive of dysplasia in ICUS/CCUS patients with concurrent morphological signs of dysplasia in the bone marrow (following re-evaluation by two hematopathologists) and in CCUS patients with a higher mutational burden. Eight patients with ICUS/CCUS from our cohort progressed to another myeloid malignancy (MDS, acute myeloid leukemia, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia), all showing flow cytometric signs of dysplasia. FC performs poorly in diagnosing CCUS versus ICUS. However, it can potentially provide prognostic information in cytopenic patients by identifying a subgroup of patients with a higher grade of dysplasia, higher mutational burden, and higher risk of progression and, together with mutational screening, also identify a group of patients who might require morphological reassessment of dysplastic changes in their bone marrow.
    The diagnostic and prognostic role of flow cytometry in idiopathic and clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS/CCUS): A single-center analysis of 79 patients.
    Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry, Sep 2019 [PubMed 31479199]
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are hematological diseases predominantly occurring in older patients. Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains the curative therapy for refractory AML or high-risk MDS, old age is often a hurdle to the procedure. We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the prognostic factors predicting outcomes of older patients undergoing allo-HSCT for acute leukemia and MDS. We collected data from patients diagnosed with acute leukemia or MDS, who underwent allo-HSCT at age more than 50 years and reviewed clinical characteristics including age, sex, underlying disease, European Group for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) risk score, and presence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) or chronic GVHD (cGVHD). The Cox proportional hazard model was adopted to explore the independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and non-relapse mortality (NRM). A total of 85 older patients were included, with the median age at allo-HSCT being 55 years. The significant prognostic factors for worse OS or PFS were an EBMT risk score > 3 and grade III-IV aGVHD, while patients with moderate to severe cGVHD would have better OS or PFS. Interestingly, it's not chronic GVHD but grade III-IV aGVHD that significantly correlated with NRM. This cohort study suggests that an EBMT risk score > 3 and grade III-IV aGVHD predict poor outcomes, and careful management of GVHD may allow better survival for older patients undergoing allo-HSCT.
    European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation score correlates with outcomes of older patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA, Jan 2020 [PubMed 31904659]

9. dasatinib

888 articles, score 318.179

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Enriched GO Terms

Abstracts

  • To design, develop, optimize and evaluate sustained-release dasatinib-loaded gold nanoparticles (DSB-GNPs) to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) by using quality by design. In this study, we performed risk assessment, optimization, in vitro characterizations, stability study, drug release studies, cytotoxicity study and in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation. DSB-GNPs of desired size, entrapment, smooth, spherical, stable and sustained drug release for 48 h were achieved. DSB-GNPs exhibited significantly more percentage growth inhibition and enhanced systemic bioavailability compared with pure DSB. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation exhibited that the DSB-GNPs have a potential cytotoxic effect, systemic bioavailability and sustained release making them a promising system of DSB delivery in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Gold nanoparticles for sustained antileukemia drug release: development, optimization and evaluation by quality-by-design approach.
    Nanomedicine (London, England), Apr 2019 [PubMed 30901283]
  • Dasatinib has shown promising anti-leukemic activity against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, patients receiving dasatinib frequently require dose reductions and treatment interruptions (treatment alteration). ) at steady state were assessed on day 28 of therapy. /D/W were correlated with the incidence of treatment alteration (HR 4.78, 95% CI: 1.01-22.70, p = 0.049; HR 6.17, 95% CI: 1.17-32.50, respectively). /D/W value and/or advanced PS were at a high risk for altered treatment.
    Plasma concentrations of dasatinib have a clinical impact on the frequency of dasatinib dose reduction and interruption in chronic myeloid leukemia: an analysis of the DARIA 01 study.
    International journal of clinical oncology, Oct 2018 [PubMed 29845477]
  • Dasatinib is currently approved for clinical use as a first-line treatment agent for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, only a few clinical trials have been performed to evaluate dasatinibinduced PE following first-line therapy. We investigated the incidence and clinical features of dasatinib-induced PE following first-line therapy in Japanese CML patients of real world clinical practice settings. Among 22 patients, the median age of PE-positive patients was higher than that of PE-negative patients. Major molecular response was achieved in 75% of PE-positive patients and 50% of PE-negative patients. Most patients developed PE more than 1 year after treatment. Appearance of PE is associated with better clinical response during dasatinib treatment, however it is developed at any time. Elderly and high-risk patients tend to develop PE. The clinical features of dasatinib-induced PE following first-line therapy might be late onset and might not immediately follow the increasing of large granular lymphocyte.
    chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Hematology reports, Sep 2018 [PubMed 30283618]

10. hematologic malignancies

931 articles, score 299.930

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Not available

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Not available

Abstracts

  • Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) occurs in the blood of approximately 20% of older persons. CHIP is linked to an increased risk of hematologic malignancies and of all-cause mortality; thus, the eligibility of stem-cell donors with CHIP is questionable. We comprehensively investigated how donor CHIP affects outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We collected blood samples from 500 healthy, related HSCT donors (age ≥ 55 years) at the time of stem-cell donation for targeted sequencing with a 66-gene panel. The effect of donor CHIP was assessed on recipient outcomes, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), cumulative incidence of relapse/progression (CIR/P), and overall survival (OS). A total of 92 clonal mutations with a median variant allele frequency of 5.9% were identified in 80 (16.0%) of 500 donors. CHIP prevalence was higher in donors related to patients with myeloid compared with lymphoid malignancies (19.2% v 6.3%; P ≤ .001). In recipients allografted with donor CHIP, we found a high cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD; hazard ratio [HR], 1.73; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.49; P = .003) and lower CIR/P (univariate: HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.97; P = .027; multivariate: HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.98; P = .042) but no effect on nonrelapse mortality. Serial quantification of 25 mutations showed engraftment of 24 of 25 clones and disproportionate expansion in half of them. Donor-cell leukemia was observed in two recipients. OS was not affected by donor CHIP status (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.321; P = .434). Allogeneic HSCT from donors with CHIP seems safe and results in similar survival in the setting of older, related donors. Future studies in younger and unrelated donors are warranted to extend these results. Confirmatory studies and mechanistic experiments are warranted to challenge the hypothesis that donor CHIP might foster cGVHD development and reduce relapse/progression risk.
    Role of Donor Clonal Hematopoiesis in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation.
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Feb 2019 [PubMed 30403573]
  • Compared with linear RNA, circular RNAs (circRNAs) form a covalently closed circular continuous loop and are highly conserved, stable and tissue-specific. In recent years, circRNAs received considerable attention in the diagnosis, classification, treatment and prognosis of hematological tumors. circRNAs function as microRNA sponges and competitive endogenous RNAs that play an essential role in the translation, regulation and interaction of proteins. The present review discussed the fundamental properties and functions of circRNAs and the latest advancements in the context of circRNAs in the clinical research of hematological malignancies, namely acute and chronic myeloid leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. circRNAs show potential in the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases and can be used as therapeutic targets and biomarkers for disease.
    Role of circular RNA in hematological malignancies.
    Oncology letters, Nov 2019 [PubMed 31611947]
  • Bones provide both skeletal scaffolding and space for hematopoiesis in its marrow. Previous work has shown that these functions were tightly regulated by the nervous system. The central and peripheral nervous systems tightly regulate compact bone remodeling, its metabolism, and hematopoietic homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM). Accumulating evidence indicates that the nervous system, which fine-tunes inflammatory responses and alterations in neural functions, may regulate autoimmune diseases. Neural signals also influence the progression of hematological malignancies such as acute and chronic myeloid leukemias. Here, we review the interplay of the nervous system with bone, BM, and immunity, and discuss future challenges to target hematological diseases through modulation of activity of the nervous system.
    Neural Regulation of Bone and Bone Marrow.
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, Sep 2018 [PubMed 29500307]


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