Hits 1 - 10 (out of 100 matching entities) [176 mentions] (17 ms):
1. |SUB|T|315|I

136 articles, score 26.377

Abstracts

  • Although imatinib is effective in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment, imatinib resistance due to the T315I mutation and/or other mutations is a challenge to be overcome. However, how DNA mutation occurs, particularly the T315I mutation, remains unclear. In the current study, the mutagenesis of BCR‑ABL was analyzed via focusing on the process of drug resistance, rather than the final results. Clone sequencing of the BCR‑ABL gene and other control genes was applied in two imatinib‑resistant cell models. The results have indicated that imatinib actively and selectively causes sporadic mutations in the BCR‑ABL gene, however not in the control genes. The majority of the mutations of BCR‑ABL were not the clinically observed T315I mutation, suggesting that the T315I mutation may be due to clonal expansion of cells with survival advantages. Taken together, the results of the current study elucidated the mutagenesis process during drug resistance and thus aids in the management of chemotherapy.
    Semi‑random mutagenesis profile of BCR‑ABL during imatinib resistance acquirement in K562 cells.
    Molecular medicine reports, Dec 2017 [PubMed 29152650]
  • Although the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors greatly improved the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), drug resistance remains a problem. Thus, mechanism-based novel therapeutic targets warrant exploration. Recently, epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8 (EPS8), which has been identified as an oncogene and plays an important role in a broad spectrum of solid tumours, was reported to be related to poor prognosis or chemoresistance in acute leukemia patients. However, its role in CML remains unclear. In the present study, using q-RT‑PCR, we demonstrated that CML patients expressed a higher level of EPS8 mRNA in bone marrow mononuclear cells than healthy controls. Then, to determine the effect of EPS8 on the biological functions of CML cells, EPS8 expression was knocked down in the human CML cell line K562. Reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, impaired adhesion and migration were observed in K562 cells after EPS8 silencing. Notably, attenuation of EPS8 increased chemosensitivity both in imatinib-sensitive K562 cells and in the imatinib-resistant murine BCR-ABL+ 32D-p210BCR/ABL-T315I cells. Mechanistically, knockdown of EPS8 downregulated p-BCR/ABL and its downstream AKT/mTOR signalling pathway. Finally, knockdown of EPS8 attenuated K562 cell proliferation in BALB/c nude mice. These data indicated that EPS8 regulated the proliferation, apoptosis and chemosensitivity in BCR-ABL positive cells via the BCR-ABL/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Targeting EPS8 alone or combined with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor may be a promising alternative therapeutic strategy.
    EPS8 regulates proliferation, apoptosis and chemosensitivity in BCR-ABL positive cells via the BCR-ABL/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.
    Oncology reports, Jan 2018 [PubMed 29192326]
  • Clinical resistance to imatinib (IM) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) carries adverse consequences. We investigated 22 CML patients who developed IM-resistance for BCR-ABL kinase domain (KD) mutations. The median follow-up for this study was 101.9 months (range: 22.2 to 176.5 months) and the estimated mean overall survival was 150.87 months (95% CI: 130.0 to 171.0). Five out of 22 patients tested positive for BCR-ABL KD mutations: 2 had T315I, 2 had E255K and 1 had V289F mutations. Of the remaining 17 patients who did not harbor BCR-ABL KD mutations, 11 patients received nilotinib while the rest continued on IM. All 17 achieved haematological remission but only 5 patients achieved complete cytogenetic remission, 4 of whom did so after switching to nilotinib. Our study shows that most of our IM-resistant patients do not test positive for BCR-ABL KD mutations by available testing methods and the role of second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors remains undetermined. A critical analysis of the BCR-ABL KD mutations and the underlying mechanisms/ pathways of BCR-ABL independent IM-resistance along with potential treatments in the horizon will be discussed.
    Primary imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia patients in a developing country: BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations or BCR-ABL independent mechanisms?
    The Malaysian journal of pathology, Aug 2017 [PubMed 28866691]

2. |SUB|E|255|K

27 articles, score 4.751

Abstracts

  • Clinical resistance to imatinib (IM) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) carries adverse consequences. We investigated 22 CML patients who developed IM-resistance for BCR-ABL kinase domain (KD) mutations. The median follow-up for this study was 101.9 months (range: 22.2 to 176.5 months) and the estimated mean overall survival was 150.87 months (95% CI: 130.0 to 171.0). Five out of 22 patients tested positive for BCR-ABL KD mutations: 2 had T315I, 2 had E255K and 1 had V289F mutations. Of the remaining 17 patients who did not harbor BCR-ABL KD mutations, 11 patients received nilotinib while the rest continued on IM. All 17 achieved haematological remission but only 5 patients achieved complete cytogenetic remission, 4 of whom did so after switching to nilotinib. Our study shows that most of our IM-resistant patients do not test positive for BCR-ABL KD mutations by available testing methods and the role of second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors remains undetermined. A critical analysis of the BCR-ABL KD mutations and the underlying mechanisms/ pathways of BCR-ABL independent IM-resistance along with potential treatments in the horizon will be discussed.
    Primary imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia patients in a developing country: BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations or BCR-ABL independent mechanisms?
    The Malaysian journal of pathology, Aug 2017 [PubMed 28866691]
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is effectively treated with imatinib. However, reactivation of Bcr-Abl via kinase domain mutations that reduce sensitivity to imatinib can cause relapse. As combination therapy is frequently used to prevent emergence of resistance, the combination of imatinib with an inhibitor of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants (e.g., Src/Abl inhibitors AP23848 and BMS-354825) was investigated. To test this approach, cellular proliferation and Bcr-Abl tyrosine phosphorylation assays were done on Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type (WT) Bcr-Abl and four common imatinib-resistant mutants (Y253F, E255K, T315I, and M351T). Colony-forming assays with primary CML cells were also done. Both Src/Abl inhibitors retained full inhibitory capacity when coadministered with imatinib at concentrations above typical clinical levels. For cells expressing WT Bcr-Abl or the marginally imatinib-resistant mutant M351T, inclusion of imatinib at therapeutic levels enhanced the effects of the Src/Abl inhibitors. By comparison, for the highly imatinib-resistant mutants Y253F and E255K, inclusion of imatinib at clinical levels resulted in only a slight enhancement beyond the effects of the Src/Abl inhibitors. None of the inhibitors affected Bcr-Abl T315I cells. Colony-forming assays with primary CML cells yielded analogous results. Our results indicate that Src/Abl inhibitors are compatible with imatinib and suggest that combined Abl inhibitor therapy is a feasible treatment strategy for patients with CML.
    Combined Abl inhibitor therapy for minimizing drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia: Src/Abl inhibitors are compatible with imatinib.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Oct 2005 [PubMed 16203792]
  • The deregulated, oncogenic tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl causes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, STI571), a Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitor, selectively inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of CML cells. Despite the success of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of CML, resistance is observed, particularly in advanced disease. The most common imatinib mesylate resistance mechanism involves Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutations that impart varying degrees of drug insensitivity. AP23464, a potent adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-based inhibitor of Src and Abl kinases, displays antiproliferative activity against a human CML cell line and Bcr-Abl-transduced Ba/F3 cells (IC(50) = 14 nM; imatinib mesylate IC(50) = 350 nM). AP23464 ablates Bcr-Abl tyrosine phosphorylation, blocks cell cycle progression, and promotes apoptosis of Bcr-Abl-expressing cells. Biochemical assays with purified glutathione S transferase (GST)-Abl kinase domain confirmed that AP23464 directly inhibits Abl activity. Importantly, the low nanomolar cellular and biochemical inhibitory properties of AP23464 extend to frequently observed imatinib mesylate-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants, including nucleotide binding P-loop mutants Q252H, Y253F, E255K, C-terminal loop mutant M351T, and activation loop mutant H396P. AP23464 was ineffective against mutant T315I, an imatinib mesylate contact residue. The potency of AP23464 against imatinib mesylate-refractory Bcr-Abl and its distinct binding mode relative to imatinib mesylate warrant further investigation of AP23464 for the treatment of CML.
    Inhibition of wild-type and mutant Bcr-Abl by AP23464, a potent ATP-based oncogenic protein kinase inhibitor: implications for CML.
    Blood, Oct 2004 [PubMed 15256422]

3. |SUB|M|351|T

18 articles, score 3.315

Abstracts

  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is effectively treated with imatinib. However, reactivation of Bcr-Abl via kinase domain mutations that reduce sensitivity to imatinib can cause relapse. As combination therapy is frequently used to prevent emergence of resistance, the combination of imatinib with an inhibitor of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants (e.g., Src/Abl inhibitors AP23848 and BMS-354825) was investigated. To test this approach, cellular proliferation and Bcr-Abl tyrosine phosphorylation assays were done on Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type (WT) Bcr-Abl and four common imatinib-resistant mutants (Y253F, E255K, T315I, and M351T). Colony-forming assays with primary CML cells were also done. Both Src/Abl inhibitors retained full inhibitory capacity when coadministered with imatinib at concentrations above typical clinical levels. For cells expressing WT Bcr-Abl or the marginally imatinib-resistant mutant M351T, inclusion of imatinib at therapeutic levels enhanced the effects of the Src/Abl inhibitors. By comparison, for the highly imatinib-resistant mutants Y253F and E255K, inclusion of imatinib at clinical levels resulted in only a slight enhancement beyond the effects of the Src/Abl inhibitors. None of the inhibitors affected Bcr-Abl T315I cells. Colony-forming assays with primary CML cells yielded analogous results. Our results indicate that Src/Abl inhibitors are compatible with imatinib and suggest that combined Abl inhibitor therapy is a feasible treatment strategy for patients with CML.
    Combined Abl inhibitor therapy for minimizing drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia: Src/Abl inhibitors are compatible with imatinib.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Oct 2005 [PubMed 16203792]
  • ABL kinase domain mutations have been implicated in the resistance to the BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib mesylate of Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) leukemia patients. Using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing, we screened for ABL kinase domain mutations in 370 Ph+ patients with evidence of hematologic or cytogenetic resistance to imatinib. Mutations were found in 127 of 297 (43%) evaluable patients. Mutations were found in 27% of chronic-phase patients (14% treated with imatinib frontline; 31% treated with imatinib post-IFN failure), 52% of accelerated-phase patients, 75% of myeloid blast crisis patients, and 83% of lymphoid blast crisis/Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Mutations were associated in 30% of patients with primary resistance (44% hematologic and 28% cytogenetic) and in 57% of patients with acquired resistance (23% patients who lost cytogenetic response; 55% patients who lost hematologic response; and 87% patients who progressed to accelerated phase/blast crisis). P-loop and T315I mutations were particularly frequent in advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph+ ALL patients, and often accompanied progression from chronic phase to accelerated phase/blast crisis. We conclude that (a) amino acid substitutions at seven residues (M244V, G250E, Y253F/H, E255K/V, T315I, M351T, and F359V) account for 85% of all resistance-associated mutations; (b) the search for mutations is important both in case of imatinib failure and in case of loss of response at the hematologic or cytogenetic level; (c) advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph+ ALL patients have a higher likelihood of developing imatinib-resistant mutations; and (d) the presence of either P-loop or T315I mutations in imatinib-treated patients should warn the clinician to reconsider the therapeutic strategy.
    Contribution of ABL kinase domain mutations to imatinib resistance in different subsets of Philadelphia-positive patients: by the GIMEMA Working Party on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Dec 2006 [PubMed 17189410]
  • BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations are infrequently detected in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Recent studies indicate the presence of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations in a higher percentage of CML patients when CD34+ stem/progenitor cells are investigated using sensitive techniques, and these mutations are associated with imatinib resistance and disease progression. However, such studies were limited to smaller number of patients. We investigated BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells from 100 chronic-phase CML patients by multiplex allele-specific PCR and sequencing at diagnosis. Mutations were re-investigated upon manifestation of imatinib resistance using allele-specific PCR and direct sequencing of BCR-ABL kinase domain. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations were detected in 32/100 patients and included F311L, M351T, and T315I. After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 8-48), all patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations exhibited imatinib resistance. Of the 68 patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, 24 developed imatinib resistance; allele-specific PCR and BCR-ABL kinase domain sequencing detected mutations in 22 of these patients. All 32 patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations had the same mutations after manifestation of imatinib-resistance. In imatinib-resistant patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, we detected F311L, M351T, Y253F, and T315I mutations. All imatinib-resistant patients except T315I and Y253F mutations responded to imatinib dose escalation. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can be detected in a substantial number of chronic-phase CML patients by sensitive allele-specific PCR technique using CD34+ cells. These mutations are associated with imatinib resistance if affecting drug binding directly or indirectly. After the recent approval of nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib and ponatinib for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia along with imatinib, all of which vary in their effectiveness against mutated BCR-ABL forms, detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can help in selection of appropriate first-line drug therapy. Thus, mutation testing using CD34+ cells may facilitate improved, patient-tailored treatment.
    Sensitive detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells of newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients is associated with imatinib resistance: implications in the post-imatinib era.
    PloS one, 2013 [PubMed 23409026]

4. |SUB|Y|253|H

15 articles, score 2.589

Abstracts

  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells express the active BCR-ABL1 protein, which has been targeted by imatinib in CML therapy, but resistance to this drug is an emerging problem. BCR-ABL1 induces endogenous oxidative stress promoting genomic instability and imatinib resistance. In the present work, we investigated the extent of oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis and expression of apoptosis-related genes in BCR-ABL1 cells sensitive and resistant to imatinib. The resistance resulted either from the Y253H mutation in the BCR-ABL1 gene or incubation in increasing concentrations of imatinib (AR). UV irradiation at a dose rate of 0.12 J/(m2 · s) induced more DNA damage detected by the T4 pyrimidine dimers glycosylase and hOGG1, recognizing oxidative modifications to DNA bases in imatinib-resistant than -sensitive cells. The resistant cells displayed also higher susceptibility to UV-induced apoptosis. These cells had lower native mitochondrial membrane potential than imatinib-sensitive cells, but UV-irradiation reversed that relationship. We observed a significant lowering of the expression of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) gene, encoding a component of the complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is involved in apoptosis sensing. Although detailed mechanism of imatinib resistance in AR cells in unknown, we detected the presence of the Y253H mutation in a fraction of these cells. In conclusion, imatinib-resistant cells may display a different extent of genome instability than their imatinib-sensitive counterparts, which may follow their different reactions to both endogenous and exogenous DNA-damaging factors, including DNA repair and apoptosis.
    UV Differentially Induces Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage and Apoptosis in BCR-ABL1-Positive Cells Sensitive and Resistant to Imatinib.
    International journal of molecular sciences, Aug 2015 [PubMed 26251899]
  • Imatinib resistance is an emerging problem in the therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Because imatinib induces apoptosis, which may be coupled with mitochondria and DNA damage is a prototype apoptosis-inducing factor, we hypothesized that imatinib-sensitive and -resistant CML cells might differentially express apoptosis-related mitochondrially encoded genes in response to genotoxic stress. We investigated the effect of doxorubicin (DOX), a DNA-damaging anticancer drug, on apoptosis and the expression of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 3 (MT-ND3) and cytochrome b (MT-CYB) in model CML cells showing imatinib resistance caused by Y253H mutation in the BCR-ABL1 gene (253) or culturing imatinib-sensitive (S) cells in increasing concentrations of imatinib (AR). The imatinib-resistant 253 cells displayed higher sensitivity to apoptosis induced by 1 μM DOX and this was confirmed by an increased activity of executioner caspases 3 and 7 in those cells. Native mitochondrial potential was lower in imatinib-resistant cells than in their sensitive counterparts and DOX lowered it. MT-CYB mRNA expression in 253 cells was lower than that in S cells and 0.1 μM DOX kept this relationship. In conclusion, imatinib resistance may be associated with altered mitochondrial response to genotoxic stress, which may be further exploited in CML therapy in patients with imatinib resistance.
    Doxorubicin Differentially Induces Apoptosis, Expression of Mitochondrial Apoptosis-Related Genes, and Mitochondrial Potential in BCR-ABL1-Expressing Cells Sensitive and Resistant to Imatinib.
    BioMed research international, 2015 [PubMed 26618175]
  • Point mutations were found in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding region of BCR/ABL in 12 of 18 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL) and imatinib resistance (defined as loss of established hematologic response), but they were found in only 1 of 10 patients with CML with imatinib refractoriness (failure to achieve cytogenetic response). In 10 of 10 patients for whom samples were available, the mutation was not detected before the initiation of imatinib therapy. Three mutations (T315I, Y253H, and F317L present in 3, 1, and 1 patients, respectively) have a predicted role in abrogating imatinib binding to BCR/ABL, whereas 3 other mutations (E255K, G250E, and M351T, present in 4, 2, and 2 patients, respectively) do not. Thus we confirm a high frequency of mutations clustered within the ATP-binding region of BCR/ABL in resistant patients. Screening may allow intervention before relapse by identifying emerging mutations with defined impacts on imatinib binding. Certain mutations may respond to higher doses of imatinib, whereas other mutations may mandate switching to another therapeutic strategy.
    High frequency of point mutations clustered within the adenosine triphosphate-binding region of BCR/ABL in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia or Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia who develop imatinib (STI571) resistance.
    Blood, May 2002 [PubMed 11964322]

5. |SUB|K|562|R

6 articles, score 1.746

Abstracts

  • Imatinib (IM) is a first-line therapeutic drug for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a hematological disease. Mutations in the BCR-ABL domain increase formation of IM resistance in CML. However, not all patients are BCR-ABL domain-mutant dependent. Investigating non-mutant mechanisms in the development of acquired IM resistance is a critical issue. We explored the mechanisms which influence IM efficacy and resistance in CML. Higher protective autophagy was identified in IM-resistant K562 (K562R) cells. Inhibition of autophagy by the inhibitors, chloroquine and 3-methyladenine, enhanced IM's efficacy in K562R cells. In addition, microRNA (miR)-199a/b-5p were downregulated in K562R cells compared to parent cells. Overexpression of miR-199a/b-5p reduced autophagy and induced cell apoptosis, resulting in enhanced IM's efficacy in K562R cells. Moreover, expression levels of the Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 2 (WNT2), a positive regulator of autophagy, were significantly higher in K562R cells, and it was validated as a direct target gene of miR-199a/b-5p. Overexpressions of miR-199a/b-5p inhibited WNT2 downstream signaling. Furthermore, overexpression and knockdown of WNT2 influenced autophagy formation and CML drug sensitivity to IM. Overexpression of WNT2 could also reverse miR-199a/b-5p-enhanced IM efficacy in K562R cells. These results emphasized that miR-199a/b-5p inhibited autophagy via repressing WNT2 signaling and might provide novel therapeutic strategies for future IM-resistant CML therapy and drug development.
    microRNA-199a/b-5p enhance imatinib efficacy via repressing WNT2 signaling-mediated protective autophagy in imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
    Chemico-biological interactions, Aug 2018 [PubMed 29890129]
  • Imatinib, a Bcr-Abl-specific inhibitor, is effective for treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but drug resistance has emerged for this disease. In this study, we synthesized a novel tubulin polymerization inhibitor, MPT0B206 (N-[1-(4-methoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-7-yl]-formamide), and demonstrated its apoptotic effect and mechanism in imatinib-sensitive K562 and imatinib-resistant K562R CML cells. Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy showed that MPT0B206 induced microtubule depolymerization in K562 and K562R cells. MPT0B206 inhibited the growth of these cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. It did not affect the viability of normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells. MPT0B206 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and the appearance of the mitotic marker MPM-2 in K562 and K562R cells, which is associated with the upregulation of cyclin B1 and the dephosphorylation of Cdc2. Treatment of K562 and K562R cells with MPT0B206 induced apoptosis and reduced the protein levels of procaspase-9 and procaspase-3 and increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. MPT0B206 also reduced the levels of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 and increased the level of the apoptotic protein Bax. Additional experiments showed that MPT0B206 markedly downregulated Bcr-Abl mRNA expression and total and phosphorylated Bcr-Abl protein levels and inhibited the phosphorylation of its downstream proteins STAT5, MAPK, and AKT, and the protein level of c-Myc in K562 and K562R cells. Furthermore, MPT0B206 triggered viability reduction and apoptosis in CML cells carrying T315I-mutated Bcr-Abl. Together, these results suggest that MPT0B206 is a promising alternative for treating imatinib-resistant CML.
    A novel tubulin polymerization inhibitor, MPT0B206, downregulates Bcr-Abl expression and induces apoptosis in imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant CML cells.
    Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death, Sep 2016 [PubMed 27344662]
  • Despite the success of imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) remains largely incurable, and a number of CML patients die due to Abl mutation-related drug resistance and blast crisis. The aim of this study was to evaluate proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction by down-regulating PPP2R5C gene expression in the imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant CML cell lines K562, K562R (imatinib resistant without an Abl gene mutation), 32D-Bcr-Abl WT (imatinib-sensitive murine CML cell line with a wild type Abl gene) and 32D-Bcr-Abl T315I (imatinib resistant with a T315I Abl gene mutation) and primary cells from CML patients by RNA interference. PPP2R5C siRNAs numbered 799 and 991 were obtained by chemosynthesis. Non-silencing siRNA scrambled control (SC)-treated, mock-transfected, and untreated cells were used as controls. The PPP2R5C mRNA and protein expression levels in treated CML cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, and in vitro cell proliferation was assayed with the cell counting kit-8 method. The morphology and percentage of apoptosis were revealed by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry (FCM). The results demonstrated that both siRNAs had the best silencing results after nucleofection in all four cell lines and primary cells. A reduction in PPP2R5C mRNA and protein levels was observed in the treated cells. The proliferation rate of the PPP2R5C-siRNA-treated CML cell lines was significantly decreased at 72 h, and apoptosis was significantly increased. Significantly higher proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction were found in K562R cells treated with PPP2R5C-siRNA799 than K562 cells. In conclusion, the suppression of PPP2R5C by RNA interference could inhibit proliferation and effectively induce apoptosis in CML cells that were either imatinib sensitive or resistant. Down-regulating PPP2R5C gene expression might be considered as a new therapeutic target strategy for CML, particularly for imatinib-resistant CML.
    Proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells via PPP2R5C down-regulation.
    Journal of hematology & oncology, 2013 [PubMed 24004697]

6. |SUB|G|250|E

10 articles, score 1.567

Abstracts

  • ABL kinase domain mutations have been implicated in the resistance to the BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib mesylate of Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) leukemia patients. Using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing, we screened for ABL kinase domain mutations in 370 Ph+ patients with evidence of hematologic or cytogenetic resistance to imatinib. Mutations were found in 127 of 297 (43%) evaluable patients. Mutations were found in 27% of chronic-phase patients (14% treated with imatinib frontline; 31% treated with imatinib post-IFN failure), 52% of accelerated-phase patients, 75% of myeloid blast crisis patients, and 83% of lymphoid blast crisis/Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Mutations were associated in 30% of patients with primary resistance (44% hematologic and 28% cytogenetic) and in 57% of patients with acquired resistance (23% patients who lost cytogenetic response; 55% patients who lost hematologic response; and 87% patients who progressed to accelerated phase/blast crisis). P-loop and T315I mutations were particularly frequent in advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph+ ALL patients, and often accompanied progression from chronic phase to accelerated phase/blast crisis. We conclude that (a) amino acid substitutions at seven residues (M244V, G250E, Y253F/H, E255K/V, T315I, M351T, and F359V) account for 85% of all resistance-associated mutations; (b) the search for mutations is important both in case of imatinib failure and in case of loss of response at the hematologic or cytogenetic level; (c) advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph+ ALL patients have a higher likelihood of developing imatinib-resistant mutations; and (d) the presence of either P-loop or T315I mutations in imatinib-treated patients should warn the clinician to reconsider the therapeutic strategy.
    Contribution of ABL kinase domain mutations to imatinib resistance in different subsets of Philadelphia-positive patients: by the GIMEMA Working Party on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Dec 2006 [PubMed 17189410]
  • Point mutations were found in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding region of BCR/ABL in 12 of 18 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL) and imatinib resistance (defined as loss of established hematologic response), but they were found in only 1 of 10 patients with CML with imatinib refractoriness (failure to achieve cytogenetic response). In 10 of 10 patients for whom samples were available, the mutation was not detected before the initiation of imatinib therapy. Three mutations (T315I, Y253H, and F317L present in 3, 1, and 1 patients, respectively) have a predicted role in abrogating imatinib binding to BCR/ABL, whereas 3 other mutations (E255K, G250E, and M351T, present in 4, 2, and 2 patients, respectively) do not. Thus we confirm a high frequency of mutations clustered within the ATP-binding region of BCR/ABL in resistant patients. Screening may allow intervention before relapse by identifying emerging mutations with defined impacts on imatinib binding. Certain mutations may respond to higher doses of imatinib, whereas other mutations may mandate switching to another therapeutic strategy.
    High frequency of point mutations clustered within the adenosine triphosphate-binding region of BCR/ABL in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia or Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia who develop imatinib (STI571) resistance.
    Blood, May 2002 [PubMed 11964322]
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal malignant myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the expansion of hematopoietic cells carrying the Philadelphia chromosome (t 9.22). Our main objective was to assess the efficacy of imatinib in CML patients, measured by their survival. Over a six-year period (June 2003 through May 2009), 25 patients were seen regularly for CML at the Lomé Campus teaching hospital. Patients received imatinib after diagnosis and underwent regular laboratory monitoring (quantification of BCR-ABL ratio by RT-PCR). Patients' survival and treatment response were evaluated. Patients' mean age at diagnosis was 40 years (range: 9 to 72 years). Men predominated (17 compared with 7 women). Splenomegaly was found in 80% of cases. The mean leukocyte level was 188.71 g/L (24.4-350). Six patients (24%) had thrombocytosis with a mean platelet count of 491.15 g/L (108-2000). Six patients (24%) died after developing accelerated-phase CML or blast crisis. Estimated overall survival of patients at 6 years was 60%. Molecular biology monitoring detected a secondary G250E mutation with resistance to imatinib in one patient. Standard hematological side effects led to reduction in imatinib doses. The principal nonhematological side effects were weight gain and transient digestible disorders. At six years after diagnosis, imatinib was effective in treating patients with CML, even in sub-Saharan Africa. Mutation-induced resistance required regular molecular biological monitoring to determine the need to switch to later-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    [Chronic myeloid leukemia and imatinib: Experience at the Lome Campus teaching hospital (Togo)].
    Médecine et santé tropicales, 2012 [PubMed 23174189]

7. |SUB|F|317|L

9 articles, score 1.517

Abstracts

  • The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has significantly increased survival rate and quality of life for patients with CML. Despite the high efficacy of imatinib, not all patients benefit from this treatment. Resistance to imatinib can develop from a number of mechanisms. One of the main reasons for treatment failure is a mutation in the BCR-ABL gene, which leads to therapy resistance and clonal evolution. Clearly, new treatment approaches are required for patients who are resistant to imatinib. However, mutated clones are usually susceptible to second-generation TKIs, such as nilotinib and dasatinib. The choice of the therapy depends on the type of mutation. A large trial program showed that dasatinib is effective in patients previously exposed to imatinib. However, for a minority of patients who experience treatment failure with TKI or progress to advanced-phase disease, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains the therapeutic option. In spite of the high curative potential of allo-SCT, its high relapse rate still requires a feasible strategy of posttransplant treatment and prophylaxis. We report a case of a CML patient with primary resistance to first-line TKI therapy. The patient developed an undifferentiated blast crisis. Before dasatinib therapy, the patient was found to have an F317L mutation. He was successfully treated with dasatinib followed by allo-SCT. In the posttransplant period, preemptive dasatinib treatment was used to prevent disease relapse.
    Efficacy of Dasatinib in a CML Patient in Blast Crisis with F317L Mutation: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Biomarker insights, 2015 [PubMed 26673003]
  • Point mutations were found in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding region of BCR/ABL in 12 of 18 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL) and imatinib resistance (defined as loss of established hematologic response), but they were found in only 1 of 10 patients with CML with imatinib refractoriness (failure to achieve cytogenetic response). In 10 of 10 patients for whom samples were available, the mutation was not detected before the initiation of imatinib therapy. Three mutations (T315I, Y253H, and F317L present in 3, 1, and 1 patients, respectively) have a predicted role in abrogating imatinib binding to BCR/ABL, whereas 3 other mutations (E255K, G250E, and M351T, present in 4, 2, and 2 patients, respectively) do not. Thus we confirm a high frequency of mutations clustered within the ATP-binding region of BCR/ABL in resistant patients. Screening may allow intervention before relapse by identifying emerging mutations with defined impacts on imatinib binding. Certain mutations may respond to higher doses of imatinib, whereas other mutations may mandate switching to another therapeutic strategy.
    High frequency of point mutations clustered within the adenosine triphosphate-binding region of BCR/ABL in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia or Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia who develop imatinib (STI571) resistance.
    Blood, May 2002 [PubMed 11964322]
  • Data demonstrating the superiority of nilotinib over imatinib in the frontline treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and ongoing studies with dasatinib and bosutinib are rapidly changing the treatment landscape for CML. In this review, the authors discuss currently available therapies for CML, focusing on mechanisms of resistance to imatinib and treatment strategies to overcome resistance. Relevant articles were identified through searches of PubMed and abstracts from international hematology/oncology congresses. Additional information sources were identified from the bibliographies of these references and from the authors' own libraries and expertise. In vitro 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) data alone are not sufficient to guide the choice of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in the presence of a mutant breakpoint cluster region-v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog (BCR-ABL) clone, because there is a lack of data regarding how well such IC(50) values correlate with clinical response. A small subset of BCR-ABL mutant clones have been associated with impaired responses to second-generation TKIs (tyrosine to histidine mutation at codon 253 [Y253H], glutamic acid to lysine or valine mutation at codon 255 [E255K/V], and phenylalanine to cysteine or valine mutation at codon 359 [F359C/V] for nilotinib; valine to leucine mutation at codon 299 [V299L] and F317L for dasatinib); neither nilotinib nor dasatinib is active against the threonine to isoleucine mutation at codon 315 (T315I). For each second-generation TKI, the detection of 1 of a small subset of mutations at the time of resistance may be helpful in the selection of second-line therapy [corrected]. For the majority of patients, comorbidities and drug safety profiles should be the basis for choosing a second-line agent. Clinical trial data from an evaluation of the response of specific mutant BCR-ABL clones to TKIs is needed to establish the role of mutation testing in the management of CML.
    Practical advice for determining the role of BCR-ABL mutations in guiding tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Cancer, May 2011 [PubMed 21509757]

8. |SUB|Y|253|F

7 articles, score 1.440

Abstracts

  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is effectively treated with imatinib. However, reactivation of Bcr-Abl via kinase domain mutations that reduce sensitivity to imatinib can cause relapse. As combination therapy is frequently used to prevent emergence of resistance, the combination of imatinib with an inhibitor of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants (e.g., Src/Abl inhibitors AP23848 and BMS-354825) was investigated. To test this approach, cellular proliferation and Bcr-Abl tyrosine phosphorylation assays were done on Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type (WT) Bcr-Abl and four common imatinib-resistant mutants (Y253F, E255K, T315I, and M351T). Colony-forming assays with primary CML cells were also done. Both Src/Abl inhibitors retained full inhibitory capacity when coadministered with imatinib at concentrations above typical clinical levels. For cells expressing WT Bcr-Abl or the marginally imatinib-resistant mutant M351T, inclusion of imatinib at therapeutic levels enhanced the effects of the Src/Abl inhibitors. By comparison, for the highly imatinib-resistant mutants Y253F and E255K, inclusion of imatinib at clinical levels resulted in only a slight enhancement beyond the effects of the Src/Abl inhibitors. None of the inhibitors affected Bcr-Abl T315I cells. Colony-forming assays with primary CML cells yielded analogous results. Our results indicate that Src/Abl inhibitors are compatible with imatinib and suggest that combined Abl inhibitor therapy is a feasible treatment strategy for patients with CML.
    Combined Abl inhibitor therapy for minimizing drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia: Src/Abl inhibitors are compatible with imatinib.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Oct 2005 [PubMed 16203792]
  • BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations are infrequently detected in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Recent studies indicate the presence of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations in a higher percentage of CML patients when CD34+ stem/progenitor cells are investigated using sensitive techniques, and these mutations are associated with imatinib resistance and disease progression. However, such studies were limited to smaller number of patients. We investigated BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells from 100 chronic-phase CML patients by multiplex allele-specific PCR and sequencing at diagnosis. Mutations were re-investigated upon manifestation of imatinib resistance using allele-specific PCR and direct sequencing of BCR-ABL kinase domain. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations were detected in 32/100 patients and included F311L, M351T, and T315I. After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 8-48), all patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations exhibited imatinib resistance. Of the 68 patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, 24 developed imatinib resistance; allele-specific PCR and BCR-ABL kinase domain sequencing detected mutations in 22 of these patients. All 32 patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations had the same mutations after manifestation of imatinib-resistance. In imatinib-resistant patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, we detected F311L, M351T, Y253F, and T315I mutations. All imatinib-resistant patients except T315I and Y253F mutations responded to imatinib dose escalation. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can be detected in a substantial number of chronic-phase CML patients by sensitive allele-specific PCR technique using CD34+ cells. These mutations are associated with imatinib resistance if affecting drug binding directly or indirectly. After the recent approval of nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib and ponatinib for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia along with imatinib, all of which vary in their effectiveness against mutated BCR-ABL forms, detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can help in selection of appropriate first-line drug therapy. Thus, mutation testing using CD34+ cells may facilitate improved, patient-tailored treatment.
    Sensitive detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells of newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients is associated with imatinib resistance: implications in the post-imatinib era.
    PloS one, 2013 [PubMed 23409026]
  • The deregulated, oncogenic tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl causes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, STI571), a Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitor, selectively inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of CML cells. Despite the success of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of CML, resistance is observed, particularly in advanced disease. The most common imatinib mesylate resistance mechanism involves Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutations that impart varying degrees of drug insensitivity. AP23464, a potent adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-based inhibitor of Src and Abl kinases, displays antiproliferative activity against a human CML cell line and Bcr-Abl-transduced Ba/F3 cells (IC(50) = 14 nM; imatinib mesylate IC(50) = 350 nM). AP23464 ablates Bcr-Abl tyrosine phosphorylation, blocks cell cycle progression, and promotes apoptosis of Bcr-Abl-expressing cells. Biochemical assays with purified glutathione S transferase (GST)-Abl kinase domain confirmed that AP23464 directly inhibits Abl activity. Importantly, the low nanomolar cellular and biochemical inhibitory properties of AP23464 extend to frequently observed imatinib mesylate-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants, including nucleotide binding P-loop mutants Q252H, Y253F, E255K, C-terminal loop mutant M351T, and activation loop mutant H396P. AP23464 was ineffective against mutant T315I, an imatinib mesylate contact residue. The potency of AP23464 against imatinib mesylate-refractory Bcr-Abl and its distinct binding mode relative to imatinib mesylate warrant further investigation of AP23464 for the treatment of CML.
    Inhibition of wild-type and mutant Bcr-Abl by AP23464, a potent ATP-based oncogenic protein kinase inhibitor: implications for CML.
    Blood, Oct 2004 [PubMed 15256422]

9. |SUB|Q|252|H

5 articles, score .998

Abstracts

  • The deregulated, oncogenic tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl causes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, STI571), a Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitor, selectively inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of CML cells. Despite the success of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of CML, resistance is observed, particularly in advanced disease. The most common imatinib mesylate resistance mechanism involves Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutations that impart varying degrees of drug insensitivity. AP23464, a potent adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-based inhibitor of Src and Abl kinases, displays antiproliferative activity against a human CML cell line and Bcr-Abl-transduced Ba/F3 cells (IC(50) = 14 nM; imatinib mesylate IC(50) = 350 nM). AP23464 ablates Bcr-Abl tyrosine phosphorylation, blocks cell cycle progression, and promotes apoptosis of Bcr-Abl-expressing cells. Biochemical assays with purified glutathione S transferase (GST)-Abl kinase domain confirmed that AP23464 directly inhibits Abl activity. Importantly, the low nanomolar cellular and biochemical inhibitory properties of AP23464 extend to frequently observed imatinib mesylate-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants, including nucleotide binding P-loop mutants Q252H, Y253F, E255K, C-terminal loop mutant M351T, and activation loop mutant H396P. AP23464 was ineffective against mutant T315I, an imatinib mesylate contact residue. The potency of AP23464 against imatinib mesylate-refractory Bcr-Abl and its distinct binding mode relative to imatinib mesylate warrant further investigation of AP23464 for the treatment of CML.
    Inhibition of wild-type and mutant Bcr-Abl by AP23464, a potent ATP-based oncogenic protein kinase inhibitor: implications for CML.
    Blood, Oct 2004 [PubMed 15256422]
  • Resistance to imatinib mesylate is an emerging problem in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), often associated with point mutations in the Bcr-Abl kinase domain. Outcome of patients with such mutations after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT) is unknown. Ten imatinib-resistant patients with Bcr-Abl kinase mutations received a transplant: 9 had CML (3 in chronic phase, 4 in accelerated phase, and 2 in blast phase) and 1 had Philadelphia-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Patients harbored 9 different protein kinase mutations (T315I mutation, n = 2). Preparative regimens were ablative (n = 7) and nonablative (n = 3). All patients engrafted; there were no treatment-related deaths. Disease response was complete molecular (CMR; n = 7), major molecular (n = 2), and no response (n = 1). Three patients (mutations Q252H, E255K, and T315I) died of relapse after Allo-SCT. Seven patients are alive (6 in CMR) for a median of 19 months. Allo-SCT remains an important salvage option for patients who develop resistance to imatinib through Bcr-Abl mutations.
    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia after Bcr-Abl kinase mutation-related imatinib failure.
    Blood, Aug 2006 [PubMed 16601247]
  • To find new kinase inhibitors that overcome the imatinib resistance in treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), we synthesized C817, a novel derivative of curcumin, and tested its activities against wild-type (WT) and imatinib-resistant mutant Abl kinases, as well as in imatinib-sensitive and resistant CML cells in vitro. 32D cells harboring WT or mutant Abl kinases (nucleotide binding P-loop mutants Q252H, Y253F, and imatinib contact residue mutant T315I), as well as K562/G01 cells (with whole Bcr-Abl gene amplication) were tested. Kinase activity was measured using Kinase-Glo Luminescent Kinase Assay Platform in recombinant WT and mutant (Q252H, Y253F, and T315I) Abl kinases. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The phosphorylation levels of Bcr-Abl initiated signaling proteins were analyzed using Western blotting. Colony forming units (CFU) growth and long term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) were used to test the effects of C817 on human leukemia progenitor/stem cells. C817 potently inhibited both WT and mutant (Q252H, Y253F, and T315I) Abl kinase activities in a non-ATP competitive manner with the values of IC₅₀ at low nanomole levels. In consistent with above results, C817 suppressed the growth of both imatinib-sensitive and resistant CML cells, including wild-type K562, K562/G01, 32D-T315I, 32D-Q252H, and 32D-Y253F cells with the values of IC₅₀ at low micromole levels. C817 (0.5 or 1 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl and downstream proteins STAT-5 and CrkL in imatinib-resistant K562/G01 cells. Furthermore, C817 significantly suppressed CFU growth and LTC-ICs, implicating that C817 could eradiate human leukemia progenitor/stem cells. C817 is a promising compound for treatment of CML patients with Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutations that confer imatinib resistance.
    Curcumin derivative C817 inhibits proliferation of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells with wild-type or mutant Bcr-Abl in vitro.
    Acta pharmacologica Sinica, Mar 2014 [PubMed 24487968]

10. |SUB|V|289|F

3 articles, score .799

Abstracts

  • Clinical resistance to imatinib (IM) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) carries adverse consequences. We investigated 22 CML patients who developed IM-resistance for BCR-ABL kinase domain (KD) mutations. The median follow-up for this study was 101.9 months (range: 22.2 to 176.5 months) and the estimated mean overall survival was 150.87 months (95% CI: 130.0 to 171.0). Five out of 22 patients tested positive for BCR-ABL KD mutations: 2 had T315I, 2 had E255K and 1 had V289F mutations. Of the remaining 17 patients who did not harbor BCR-ABL KD mutations, 11 patients received nilotinib while the rest continued on IM. All 17 achieved haematological remission but only 5 patients achieved complete cytogenetic remission, 4 of whom did so after switching to nilotinib. Our study shows that most of our IM-resistant patients do not test positive for BCR-ABL KD mutations by available testing methods and the role of second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors remains undetermined. A critical analysis of the BCR-ABL KD mutations and the underlying mechanisms/ pathways of BCR-ABL independent IM-resistance along with potential treatments in the horizon will be discussed.
    Primary imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia patients in a developing country: BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations or BCR-ABL independent mechanisms?
    The Malaysian journal of pathology, Aug 2017 [PubMed 28866691]
  • Discovery of imatinib mesylate (IM) as the targeted BCR-ABL protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has resulted in its use as the frontline therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) across the world. Although high response rates are observed in CML patients who receive IM treatment, a significant number of patients develop resistance to IM. Resistance to IM in patients has been associated with a heterogeneous array of mechanisms of which point mutations within the ABL tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) are the frequently documented. The types and frequencies of mutations reported in different population studies have shown wide variability. We screened 125 Malaysian CML patients on IM therapy who showed either TKI refractory or resistance to IM to investigate the frequency and pattern of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations among Malaysian CML patients undergoing IM therapy and to determine the clinical significance. Mutational screening using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) followed by DNA sequencing was performed on 125 IM resistant Malaysian CML patients. Mutations were detected in 28 patients (22.4%). Fifteen different types of mutations (T315I, E255K, G250E, M351T, F359C, G251E, Y253H, V289F, E355G, N368S, L387M, H369R, A397P, E355A, D276G), including 2 novel mutations were identified, with T315I as the predominant type of mutation. The data generated from clinical and molecular parameters studied were correlated with the survival of CML patients. Patients with Y253H, M351T and E355G TKD mutations showed poorer prognosis compared to those without mutation. Interestingly, when the prognostic impact of the observed mutations was compared inter-individually, E355G and Y253H mutations were associated with more adverse prognosis and shorter survival (P=0.025 and 0.005 respectively) than T315I mutation. Results suggest that apart from those mutations occurring in the three crucial regions (catalytic domain, P-loop and activation-loop), other rare mutations also may have high impact in the development of resistance and adverse prognosis. Presence of mutations in different regions of BCR-ABL TKD leads to different levels of resistance and early detection of emerging mutant clones may help in decision making for alternative treatment. Serial monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcripts in CML patients allows appropriate selection of CML patients for BCR-ABL1 KD mutation analysis associated with acquired TKI resistance. Identification of these KD mutations is essential in order to direct alternative treatments in such CML patients.
    BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations, including 2 novel mutations in imatinib resistant Malaysian chronic myeloid leukemia patients-Frequency and clinical outcome.
    Leukemia research, Apr 2014 [PubMed 24456693]
  • Development of resistance to imatinib mesylate (IM) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients is mediated by different mechanisms that can be classified as BCR-ABL dependent or BCR-ABL independent pathways. BCR-ABL dependent mechanisms are most frequently associated with point mutations in tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) of BCR-ABL1 and also with BCR-ABL gene amplification. Many different types and frequencies of mutations have been reported in different studies, probably due to the different composition of study cohorts. Since no reports are available from Malaysia, this study was undertaken to investigate the frequency and pattern of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations using dHPLC followed by sequencing, and also status of BCR-ABL gene amplification using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on 40 IM resistant Malaysian CML patients. Mutations were detected in 13 patients (32.5%). Five different types of mutations (T315I, E255K, Y253H, M351T, V289F) were identified in these patients. In the remaining 27 IM resistant CML patients, we investigated the contribution made by BCR-ABL gene amplification, but none of these patients showed amplification. It is presumed that the mechanisms of resistance in these 27 patients might be due to BCR-ABL independent pathways. Different mutations confer different levels of resistance and, therefore, detection and characterization of TKD mutations is highly important in order to guide therapy in CML patients.
    Contribution of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations to imatinib mesylate resistance in Philadelphia chromosome positive Malaysian chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
    Hematology reports, Nov 2012 [PubMed 23355941]


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