To evaluate the efficiency of dasatinib as the second- or third-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)in imatinib-resistant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)based on BCR-ABL mutation detection. 122 CML patients received dasatinib treatment, including 83 with imatinib-resistance and 39 with both imatinib- and nilotinib-resistance, 55 in the chronic-phase (CP), 21 in the accelerated- phase (AP)and 46 in the blast- phase (BP). Those harboring dasatinib highly- resistant mutations (T315I/A, F317L/V/C and V299L)were excluded based on BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation screening by Sanger sequencing at baseline. Hematologic, cytogenetic and molecular responses were evaluated regularly, and rates of progression-free-survival (PFS)and overall survival (OS)were analyzed. BCR- ABL mutation detection was performed once the patients failed on dasatinib. In the CP patients, the rates of complete hematological response (CHR), complete cytogenetic response (CCyR), major molecular response (MMR)and molecular response 4.5 (MR4.5)were 92.7%, 53.7%, 29.6% and 14.8%, respectively. 4-year PFS and OS rates were 84.4% and 89.5%, respectively. In the AP patients, HR and CCyR rates were 81.0% and 35.0%; and 3-year PFS and OS rates were 56.1% and 59.3%, respectively. In the BP patients, HR and CCyR rates were 63.0% and 21.4%; and 1-year PFS and OS rates were 43.6% and 61.8%, respectively. Outcomes were similar when dasatinib was used as the second- line TKI or the third-line TKI. Of the 75 patients who were resistant to dasatinib, 37 (48.7%)developed new mutation(s), and T315I (59.5%)was the most common mutation type. The patients who already harbored mutation(s)before dasatinib therapy achieved similar responses and outcomes to those with no mutation at baseline. However, they had higher likelihood of developing additional mutations associated with resistance to dasatinib (65.7%vs 34.1%,P=0.006). Dasatinib was proved to be effective in the treatment of imatinib- or/and nilotinib-resistant CML patients, especially in both CP and AP cohorts. The significance of BCR-ABL mutation screening and monitoring should be highlighted before and during dasatinib therapy.
[Dasatinib treatment based on BCR- ABL mutation detection in imatinib- resistant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia].
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi, Jan 2016
The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) bosutinib in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are reviewed. Although clinical outcomes are favorable in patients wth Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive CML who receive first-line TKI therapy with imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, disease progression or relapse may occur. Thus, effective second-line agents are crucial. Bosutinib (Bosulif, Pfizer Inc.) is a second-generation TKI approved for the treatment of patients with Ph-positive chronic-, accelerated-, or blast-phase CML who are intolerant or resistant to other TKIs. Bosutinib inhibits a tyrosine kinase oncogene and Src kinases responsible for CML pathogenesis. Bosutinib is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoenzyme 3A4; therefore, concomitant use of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers should be avoided. Bosutinib is effective in cases involving most imatinib-resistant mutations (not including the T315I and V299L mutations). Clinical trials demonstrated bosutinib's efficacy in inducing durable hematologic and cytogenetic responses, as well as high rates of progression-free and overall survival, in patients with CML who had developed resistance or intolerance to other TKIs. However, bosutinib was not found to be superior to imatinib for inducing cytogenetic responses in cases of newly diagnosed CML and is thus not indicated for use in TKI-naive patients. The most common adverse events among bosutinib-treated patients in clinical trials were diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, which were generally transient and self-limited. Bosutinib is a safe and effective second-line treatment option for select patients with Ph-positive CML who were intolerant or resistant to prior TKI therapy.
Bosutinib for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Mar 2015
Bosutinib (SKI-606) is an orally available, once-daily, dual Src and Abl kinase inhibitor with promising clinical potential in first-, second-, and third-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Bosutinib effectively inhibits wild-type BCR-ABL and most imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutations except for V299L and T315I. Low hematologic toxicity is a remarkable characteristic of this novel second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and this has been ascribed to its minimal activity against the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and KIT. Low-grade, typically self-limiting diarrhea, which usually appears within the first few weeks after treatment initiation, represents the predominant toxicity of bosutinib. Other treatment-associated adverse events are mostly mild to moderate. Bosutinib has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic, accelerated, or blast phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML in adult patients with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy. This review summarizes the main properties of bosutinib and the currently available data on its clinical potential in the treatment of CML.
Profile of bosutinib and its clinical potential in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
OncoTargets and therapy, 2013