BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations are infrequently detected in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Recent studies indicate the presence of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations in a higher percentage of CML patients when CD34+ stem/progenitor cells are investigated using sensitive techniques, and these mutations are associated with imatinib resistance and disease progression. However, such studies were limited to smaller number of patients. We investigated BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells from 100 chronic-phase CML patients by multiplex allele-specific PCR and sequencing at diagnosis. Mutations were re-investigated upon manifestation of imatinib resistance using allele-specific PCR and direct sequencing of BCR-ABL kinase domain. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations were detected in 32/100 patients and included F311L, M351T, and T315I. After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 8-48), all patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations exhibited imatinib resistance. Of the 68 patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, 24 developed imatinib resistance; allele-specific PCR and BCR-ABL kinase domain sequencing detected mutations in 22 of these patients. All 32 patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations had the same mutations after manifestation of imatinib-resistance. In imatinib-resistant patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, we detected F311L, M351T, Y253F, and T315I mutations. All imatinib-resistant patients except T315I and Y253F mutations responded to imatinib dose escalation. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can be detected in a substantial number of chronic-phase CML patients by sensitive allele-specific PCR technique using CD34+ cells. These mutations are associated with imatinib resistance if affecting drug binding directly or indirectly. After the recent approval of nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib and ponatinib for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia along with imatinib, all of which vary in their effectiveness against mutated BCR-ABL forms, detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can help in selection of appropriate first-line drug therapy. Thus, mutation testing using CD34+ cells may facilitate improved, patient-tailored treatment.
Sensitive detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells of newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients is associated with imatinib resistance: implications in the post-imatinib era.
PloS one, 2013
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a mainstay of treatment for patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Testing for various mutations in the BCR-ABL gene may help predict lack of response to specific TKIs where resistance has developed. To estimate the emergence of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations associated with newly diagnosed CML patients exposed to first-line TKI treatment. Published studies were identified using a structured search of online databases. Original research studies were included if they reported the incidence of specific BCR-ABL kinase domain point mutations after first-line TKI treatment failure or baseline mutations for second-line TKI treatment following first-line treatment failure. Meta-analysis of mutation rates across studies was based on DerSimonian and Laird's random-effects model. Of 1,323 citations, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving a total of 1,698 patients. Overall mutation rates (95% CI) were imatinib 9.7% (6.2%-13.3%); dasatanib 1.7% (0.0%-4.3%); and nilotinib 3.3% (0.0%-7.7%). The most common specific mutations were T315I, E255K, and M351T. T315I mutations constituted 58% (7 of 12) of dasatinib-related mutations and 13% (15 of 117) of imatinib-related mutations. Lack of response to TKIs associated with mutation in the BCR-ABL gene was significantly higher in imatinib-treated patients, and all mutations arose after treatment. T315I was a common treatment-emergent mutation. Further research is needed to assess the prognostic value of testing for mutations and the economic implications of treatment-emergent mutations.
Emergence of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations associated with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia: a meta-analysis of clinical trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy, Feb 2015
Discovery of imatinib mesylate (IM) as the targeted BCR-ABL protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has resulted in its use as the frontline therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) across the world. Although high response rates are observed in CML patients who receive IM treatment, a significant number of patients develop resistance to IM. Resistance to IM in patients has been associated with a heterogeneous array of mechanisms of which point mutations within the ABL tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) are the frequently documented. The types and frequencies of mutations reported in different population studies have shown wide variability. We screened 125 Malaysian CML patients on IM therapy who showed either TKI refractory or resistance to IM to investigate the frequency and pattern of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations among Malaysian CML patients undergoing IM therapy and to determine the clinical significance. Mutational screening using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) followed by DNA sequencing was performed on 125 IM resistant Malaysian CML patients. Mutations were detected in 28 patients (22.4%). Fifteen different types of mutations (T315I, E255K, G250E, M351T, F359C, G251E, Y253H, V289F, E355G, N368S, L387M, H369R, A397P, E355A, D276G), including 2 novel mutations were identified, with T315I as the predominant type of mutation. The data generated from clinical and molecular parameters studied were correlated with the survival of CML patients. Patients with Y253H, M351T and E355G TKD mutations showed poorer prognosis compared to those without mutation. Interestingly, when the prognostic impact of the observed mutations was compared inter-individually, E355G and Y253H mutations were associated with more adverse prognosis and shorter survival (P=0.025 and 0.005 respectively) than T315I mutation. Results suggest that apart from those mutations occurring in the three crucial regions (catalytic domain, P-loop and activation-loop), other rare mutations also may have high impact in the development of resistance and adverse prognosis. Presence of mutations in different regions of BCR-ABL TKD leads to different levels of resistance and early detection of emerging mutant clones may help in decision making for alternative treatment. Serial monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcripts in CML patients allows appropriate selection of CML patients for BCR-ABL1 KD mutation analysis associated with acquired TKI resistance. Identification of these KD mutations is essential in order to direct alternative treatments in such CML patients.
BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations, including 2 novel mutations in imatinib resistant Malaysian chronic myeloid leukemia patients-Frequency and clinical outcome.
Leukemia research, Apr 2014