Hits 1 - 10 (out of 120 matching entities) [177 mentions] (21 ms):
1. |SUB|T|315|I

133 articles, score 45.302

Abstracts

  • Due to its inhibition of the Abl kinase domain in the BCR-ABL fusion protein, imatinib is strikingly effective in the initial stage of chronic myeloid leukemia with more than 90% of the patients showing complete remission. However, as in the case of most targeted anti-cancer therapies, the emergence of drug resistance is a serious concern. Several drug-resistant mutations affecting the catalytic domain of Abl and other tyrosine kinases are now known. But, despite their importance and the adverse effect that they have on the prognosis of the cancer patients harboring them, the molecular mechanism of these mutations is still debated. Here by using long molecular dynamics simulations and large-scale free energy calculations complemented by in vitro mutagenesis and microcalorimetry experiments, we model the effect of several widespread drug-resistant mutations of Abl. By comparing the conformational free energy landscape of the mutants with those of the wild-type tyrosine kinases we clarify their mode of action. It involves significant and complex changes in the inactive-to-active dynamics and entropy/enthalpy balance of two functional elements: the activation-loop and the conserved DFG motif. What is more the T315I gatekeeper mutant has a significant impact on the binding mechanism itself and on the binding kinetics.
    Towards a Molecular Understanding of the Link between Imatinib Resistance and Kinase Conformational Dynamics.
    PLoS computational biology, Nov 2015 [PubMed 26606374]
  • Imatinib revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with the expression of the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase, but imatinib resistance is an emerging problem. Imatinib can hinder the inhibitory effects of BCR-ABL1 on mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, so mitochondrial mutagenesis can be important for its action. To explore the mechanisms of imatinib resistance we created a mouse-derived CML model cells consisting of parental 32D cells (P) and cells transfected with the BCR-ABL1 gene (S cells) or its variants with the Y253H or T315I mutations (253 and 315 cells, respectively), conferring resistance to imatinib. A fraction of the S cells was cultured in increasing concentrations of imatinib, acquiring resistance to this drug (AR cells). The 253, 315 and AR cells, in contrast to S cells, displayed resistance to imatinib. We observed that the T315I cells displayed greater extent of H2O2-induced mtDNA damage than their imatinib-sensitive counterparts. No difference in the sensitivity to UV radiation was observed among all the cell lines. A decrease in the extent of H2O2-induced mtDNA damage was observed during a 120-min repair incubation in all cell lines, but it was significant only in imatinib-sensitive and T315I cells. No difference in the copy number of mtDNA and frequency of the 3,867-bp deletion was observed and genotoxic stress induced by H2O2 or UV did not change this relationship. In conclusion, some aspects of mtDNA mutagenesis, including sensitivity to oxidative stress and DNA repair can contribute to imatinib resistance in BCR-ABL1-expressing cells.
    Mitochondrial mutagenesis in BCR-ABL1-expressing cells sensitive and resistant to imatinib.
    Acta biochimica Polonica, 2016 [PubMed 26757169]
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by a constitutive activation of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. Bcr-Abl/T315I is the predominant mutation that causes resistance to Imatinib. In the present study, we synthesized a novel Bcr-Abl inhibitor, HS-543, and investigated its effect on cell survival or apoptosis in CML cells bearing Bcr-Abl/T315I (BaF3/T315I) or wild-type Bcr-Abl (BaF3/WT). HS-543 showed anti-proliferative effects in the BaF3/WT cells as well as the BaF3/T315I cells with resistance to Imatinib and strongly inhibited the Bcr-Abl signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it significantly increased the sub G1 phase associated with early apoptosis, with increased levels of cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3, as well as the TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. In addition, we found that HS-543 induced apoptosis with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential by decreasing the expression of Mcl-1 and survivin, together with increasing that of Bax. In BaF3/T315I xenograft models, HS-543 significantly delayed tumor growth, unlike Imatinib. Our results demonstrate that HS-543 exhibits the induction of apoptosis and anti-proliferative effect by blocking the Bcr-Abl signaling pathway in the T315I-mutated Bcr-Abl cells with resistance to Imatinib. We suggest that HS-543 may be a novel promising agent to target Bcr-Abl and overcome Imatinib resistance in CML patients.
    HS-543 induces apoptosis of Imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia with T315I mutation.
    Oncotarget, Jan 2015 [PubMed 25483100]

2. |SUB|Y|253|H

16 articles, score 6.601

Abstracts

  • Imatinib revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with the expression of the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase, but imatinib resistance is an emerging problem. Imatinib can hinder the inhibitory effects of BCR-ABL1 on mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, so mitochondrial mutagenesis can be important for its action. To explore the mechanisms of imatinib resistance we created a mouse-derived CML model cells consisting of parental 32D cells (P) and cells transfected with the BCR-ABL1 gene (S cells) or its variants with the Y253H or T315I mutations (253 and 315 cells, respectively), conferring resistance to imatinib. A fraction of the S cells was cultured in increasing concentrations of imatinib, acquiring resistance to this drug (AR cells). The 253, 315 and AR cells, in contrast to S cells, displayed resistance to imatinib. We observed that the T315I cells displayed greater extent of H2O2-induced mtDNA damage than their imatinib-sensitive counterparts. No difference in the sensitivity to UV radiation was observed among all the cell lines. A decrease in the extent of H2O2-induced mtDNA damage was observed during a 120-min repair incubation in all cell lines, but it was significant only in imatinib-sensitive and T315I cells. No difference in the copy number of mtDNA and frequency of the 3,867-bp deletion was observed and genotoxic stress induced by H2O2 or UV did not change this relationship. In conclusion, some aspects of mtDNA mutagenesis, including sensitivity to oxidative stress and DNA repair can contribute to imatinib resistance in BCR-ABL1-expressing cells.
    Mitochondrial mutagenesis in BCR-ABL1-expressing cells sensitive and resistant to imatinib.
    Acta biochimica Polonica, 2016 [PubMed 26757169]
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells express the active BCR-ABL1 protein, which has been targeted by imatinib in CML therapy, but resistance to this drug is an emerging problem. BCR-ABL1 induces endogenous oxidative stress promoting genomic instability and imatinib resistance. In the present work, we investigated the extent of oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis and expression of apoptosis-related genes in BCR-ABL1 cells sensitive and resistant to imatinib. The resistance resulted either from the Y253H mutation in the BCR-ABL1 gene or incubation in increasing concentrations of imatinib (AR). UV irradiation at a dose rate of 0.12 J/(m2 · s) induced more DNA damage detected by the T4 pyrimidine dimers glycosylase and hOGG1, recognizing oxidative modifications to DNA bases in imatinib-resistant than -sensitive cells. The resistant cells displayed also higher susceptibility to UV-induced apoptosis. These cells had lower native mitochondrial membrane potential than imatinib-sensitive cells, but UV-irradiation reversed that relationship. We observed a significant lowering of the expression of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) gene, encoding a component of the complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is involved in apoptosis sensing. Although detailed mechanism of imatinib resistance in AR cells in unknown, we detected the presence of the Y253H mutation in a fraction of these cells. In conclusion, imatinib-resistant cells may display a different extent of genome instability than their imatinib-sensitive counterparts, which may follow their different reactions to both endogenous and exogenous DNA-damaging factors, including DNA repair and apoptosis.
    UV Differentially Induces Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage and Apoptosis in BCR-ABL1-Positive Cells Sensitive and Resistant to Imatinib.
    International journal of molecular sciences, Aug 2015 [PubMed 26251899]
  • Imatinib resistance is an emerging problem in the therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Because imatinib induces apoptosis, which may be coupled with mitochondria and DNA damage is a prototype apoptosis-inducing factor, we hypothesized that imatinib-sensitive and -resistant CML cells might differentially express apoptosis-related mitochondrially encoded genes in response to genotoxic stress. We investigated the effect of doxorubicin (DOX), a DNA-damaging anticancer drug, on apoptosis and the expression of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 3 (MT-ND3) and cytochrome b (MT-CYB) in model CML cells showing imatinib resistance caused by Y253H mutation in the BCR-ABL1 gene (253) or culturing imatinib-sensitive (S) cells in increasing concentrations of imatinib (AR). The imatinib-resistant 253 cells displayed higher sensitivity to apoptosis induced by 1 μM DOX and this was confirmed by an increased activity of executioner caspases 3 and 7 in those cells. Native mitochondrial potential was lower in imatinib-resistant cells than in their sensitive counterparts and DOX lowered it. MT-CYB mRNA expression in 253 cells was lower than that in S cells and 0.1 μM DOX kept this relationship. In conclusion, imatinib resistance may be associated with altered mitochondrial response to genotoxic stress, which may be further exploited in CML therapy in patients with imatinib resistance.
    Doxorubicin Differentially Induces Apoptosis, Expression of Mitochondrial Apoptosis-Related Genes, and Mitochondrial Potential in BCR-ABL1-Expressing Cells Sensitive and Resistant to Imatinib.
    BioMed research international, 2015 [PubMed 26618175]

3. |SUB|E|255|K

27 articles, score 6.556

Abstracts

  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with the e19a2 transcript coding for p230 is a rare disease. ABL1 kinase domain mutations in CML with the e19a2 rearrangement were seldom reported. The clinical characteristics of a 45-year-old Chinese female CML patient with e19a2 BCR/ABL1 transcript were described. The mutation on the ABL gene exons was determined by sequencing the cDNA of the μ-BCR-ABL fusion product. This patient developed an acquired resistance associated with two p-BCR/ABL1 mutations (E255K and G250E) during treatment with imatinib. Here, we report a CML patient with e19a2 transcripts, carrying E255K and G250E mutation and experience of nilotinib treatment. The μ-BCR/ABL1 mutation should be investigated after imatinib treatment failure.
    E255K and G250E mutation appearing in a patient with e19a2 chronic myeloid leukemia resistant to imatinib.
    Clinical laboratory, 2015 [PubMed 25807654]
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a mainstay of treatment for patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Testing for various mutations in the BCR-ABL gene may help predict lack of response to specific TKIs where resistance has developed. To estimate the emergence of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations associated with newly diagnosed CML patients exposed to first-line TKI treatment. Published studies were identified using a structured search of online databases. Original research studies were included if they reported the incidence of specific BCR-ABL kinase domain point mutations after first-line TKI treatment failure or baseline mutations for second-line TKI treatment following first-line treatment failure. Meta-analysis of mutation rates across studies was based on DerSimonian and Laird's random-effects model. Of 1,323 citations, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving a total of 1,698 patients. Overall mutation rates (95% CI) were imatinib 9.7% (6.2%-13.3%); dasatanib 1.7% (0.0%-4.3%); and nilotinib 3.3% (0.0%-7.7%). The most common specific mutations were T315I, E255K, and M351T. T315I mutations constituted 58% (7 of 12) of dasatinib-related mutations and 13% (15 of 117) of imatinib-related mutations. Lack of response to TKIs associated with mutation in the BCR-ABL gene was significantly higher in imatinib-treated patients, and all mutations arose after treatment. T315I was a common treatment-emergent mutation. Further research is needed to assess the prognostic value of testing for mutations and the economic implications of treatment-emergent mutations.
    Emergence of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations associated with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia: a meta-analysis of clinical trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy, Feb 2015 [PubMed 25615000]
  • To analyze the association of different types of ABL tyrosine point mutations and imatinib resistance to probe the relation between ABL tyrosine point mutations and the prognosis of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Nested reverse transcriptasepolym erase chain reaction was performed on samples from 70 patients to amplify the ABL kinase domain. Then, the amplified product was purified and sequenced in both direction. The homologous analysis was performed in combination of clinical data. The ABL domain point mutations were detected in 32 patients (45.7%) including 16 patients in chronic phase (CP), 6 patients in accelerated phase(AP)and 10 patients in blast phase (BP), which were detected as T315I, E255K, C475Y, Y253H, G321W, G250E, F317L, E258K, F359V, E459K and F311I, respectively. Sokal score with intermediate and high risk and Ph+ chromosome with complex karyotype were important risk factors for ABL domain point mutations. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between the patients with or without ABL domain point mutations (78.1% vs 84.2%, P=0.985), while the 5-year cumulative event-free survival (EFS) of two groups were 34.4% and 68.4% (P=0.034), respectively. The rate of complete cytogenetic response was higher in patients treated with allogenic hematopetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) compared with patients merely treated with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors or chemotherapeutics (P=0.001). Patients with ABL domain point mutations had poor efficacy and prognosis compared to those without ABL domain point mutations. Detection of ABL domain point mutations in CML-CP was helpful for the adjustment of therapeutic options and improvement of prognosis. And allo-HSCT was a more effective therapy for patients with advanced phase.
    [Correlation between point mutation in ABL kinase and clinical outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia patients].
    Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi, Aug 2014 [PubMed 25152116]

4. |SUB|M|351|T

18 articles, score 4.803

Abstracts

  • BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations are infrequently detected in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Recent studies indicate the presence of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations in a higher percentage of CML patients when CD34+ stem/progenitor cells are investigated using sensitive techniques, and these mutations are associated with imatinib resistance and disease progression. However, such studies were limited to smaller number of patients. We investigated BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells from 100 chronic-phase CML patients by multiplex allele-specific PCR and sequencing at diagnosis. Mutations were re-investigated upon manifestation of imatinib resistance using allele-specific PCR and direct sequencing of BCR-ABL kinase domain. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations were detected in 32/100 patients and included F311L, M351T, and T315I. After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 8-48), all patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations exhibited imatinib resistance. Of the 68 patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, 24 developed imatinib resistance; allele-specific PCR and BCR-ABL kinase domain sequencing detected mutations in 22 of these patients. All 32 patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations had the same mutations after manifestation of imatinib-resistance. In imatinib-resistant patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, we detected F311L, M351T, Y253F, and T315I mutations. All imatinib-resistant patients except T315I and Y253F mutations responded to imatinib dose escalation. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can be detected in a substantial number of chronic-phase CML patients by sensitive allele-specific PCR technique using CD34+ cells. These mutations are associated with imatinib resistance if affecting drug binding directly or indirectly. After the recent approval of nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib and ponatinib for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia along with imatinib, all of which vary in their effectiveness against mutated BCR-ABL forms, detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can help in selection of appropriate first-line drug therapy. Thus, mutation testing using CD34+ cells may facilitate improved, patient-tailored treatment.
    Sensitive detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells of newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients is associated with imatinib resistance: implications in the post-imatinib era.
    PloS one, 2013 [PubMed 23409026]
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a mainstay of treatment for patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Testing for various mutations in the BCR-ABL gene may help predict lack of response to specific TKIs where resistance has developed. To estimate the emergence of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations associated with newly diagnosed CML patients exposed to first-line TKI treatment. Published studies were identified using a structured search of online databases. Original research studies were included if they reported the incidence of specific BCR-ABL kinase domain point mutations after first-line TKI treatment failure or baseline mutations for second-line TKI treatment following first-line treatment failure. Meta-analysis of mutation rates across studies was based on DerSimonian and Laird's random-effects model. Of 1,323 citations, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving a total of 1,698 patients. Overall mutation rates (95% CI) were imatinib 9.7% (6.2%-13.3%); dasatanib 1.7% (0.0%-4.3%); and nilotinib 3.3% (0.0%-7.7%). The most common specific mutations were T315I, E255K, and M351T. T315I mutations constituted 58% (7 of 12) of dasatinib-related mutations and 13% (15 of 117) of imatinib-related mutations. Lack of response to TKIs associated with mutation in the BCR-ABL gene was significantly higher in imatinib-treated patients, and all mutations arose after treatment. T315I was a common treatment-emergent mutation. Further research is needed to assess the prognostic value of testing for mutations and the economic implications of treatment-emergent mutations.
    Emergence of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations associated with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia: a meta-analysis of clinical trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy, Feb 2015 [PubMed 25615000]
  • Discovery of imatinib mesylate (IM) as the targeted BCR-ABL protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has resulted in its use as the frontline therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) across the world. Although high response rates are observed in CML patients who receive IM treatment, a significant number of patients develop resistance to IM. Resistance to IM in patients has been associated with a heterogeneous array of mechanisms of which point mutations within the ABL tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) are the frequently documented. The types and frequencies of mutations reported in different population studies have shown wide variability. We screened 125 Malaysian CML patients on IM therapy who showed either TKI refractory or resistance to IM to investigate the frequency and pattern of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations among Malaysian CML patients undergoing IM therapy and to determine the clinical significance. Mutational screening using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) followed by DNA sequencing was performed on 125 IM resistant Malaysian CML patients. Mutations were detected in 28 patients (22.4%). Fifteen different types of mutations (T315I, E255K, G250E, M351T, F359C, G251E, Y253H, V289F, E355G, N368S, L387M, H369R, A397P, E355A, D276G), including 2 novel mutations were identified, with T315I as the predominant type of mutation. The data generated from clinical and molecular parameters studied were correlated with the survival of CML patients. Patients with Y253H, M351T and E355G TKD mutations showed poorer prognosis compared to those without mutation. Interestingly, when the prognostic impact of the observed mutations was compared inter-individually, E355G and Y253H mutations were associated with more adverse prognosis and shorter survival (P=0.025 and 0.005 respectively) than T315I mutation. Results suggest that apart from those mutations occurring in the three crucial regions (catalytic domain, P-loop and activation-loop), other rare mutations also may have high impact in the development of resistance and adverse prognosis. Presence of mutations in different regions of BCR-ABL TKD leads to different levels of resistance and early detection of emerging mutant clones may help in decision making for alternative treatment. Serial monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcripts in CML patients allows appropriate selection of CML patients for BCR-ABL1 KD mutation analysis associated with acquired TKI resistance. Identification of these KD mutations is essential in order to direct alternative treatments in such CML patients.
    BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations, including 2 novel mutations in imatinib resistant Malaysian chronic myeloid leukemia patients-Frequency and clinical outcome.
    Leukemia research, Apr 2014 [PubMed 24456693]

5. |SUB|G|250|E

11 articles, score 3.280

Abstracts

  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with the e19a2 transcript coding for p230 is a rare disease. ABL1 kinase domain mutations in CML with the e19a2 rearrangement were seldom reported. The clinical characteristics of a 45-year-old Chinese female CML patient with e19a2 BCR/ABL1 transcript were described. The mutation on the ABL gene exons was determined by sequencing the cDNA of the μ-BCR-ABL fusion product. This patient developed an acquired resistance associated with two p-BCR/ABL1 mutations (E255K and G250E) during treatment with imatinib. Here, we report a CML patient with e19a2 transcripts, carrying E255K and G250E mutation and experience of nilotinib treatment. The μ-BCR/ABL1 mutation should be investigated after imatinib treatment failure.
    E255K and G250E mutation appearing in a patient with e19a2 chronic myeloid leukemia resistant to imatinib.
    Clinical laboratory, 2015 [PubMed 25807654]
  • To analyze the association of different types of ABL tyrosine point mutations and imatinib resistance to probe the relation between ABL tyrosine point mutations and the prognosis of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Nested reverse transcriptasepolym erase chain reaction was performed on samples from 70 patients to amplify the ABL kinase domain. Then, the amplified product was purified and sequenced in both direction. The homologous analysis was performed in combination of clinical data. The ABL domain point mutations were detected in 32 patients (45.7%) including 16 patients in chronic phase (CP), 6 patients in accelerated phase(AP)and 10 patients in blast phase (BP), which were detected as T315I, E255K, C475Y, Y253H, G321W, G250E, F317L, E258K, F359V, E459K and F311I, respectively. Sokal score with intermediate and high risk and Ph+ chromosome with complex karyotype were important risk factors for ABL domain point mutations. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between the patients with or without ABL domain point mutations (78.1% vs 84.2%, P=0.985), while the 5-year cumulative event-free survival (EFS) of two groups were 34.4% and 68.4% (P=0.034), respectively. The rate of complete cytogenetic response was higher in patients treated with allogenic hematopetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) compared with patients merely treated with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors or chemotherapeutics (P=0.001). Patients with ABL domain point mutations had poor efficacy and prognosis compared to those without ABL domain point mutations. Detection of ABL domain point mutations in CML-CP was helpful for the adjustment of therapeutic options and improvement of prognosis. And allo-HSCT was a more effective therapy for patients with advanced phase.
    [Correlation between point mutation in ABL kinase and clinical outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia patients].
    Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi, Aug 2014 [PubMed 25152116]
  • Discovery of imatinib mesylate (IM) as the targeted BCR-ABL protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has resulted in its use as the frontline therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) across the world. Although high response rates are observed in CML patients who receive IM treatment, a significant number of patients develop resistance to IM. Resistance to IM in patients has been associated with a heterogeneous array of mechanisms of which point mutations within the ABL tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) are the frequently documented. The types and frequencies of mutations reported in different population studies have shown wide variability. We screened 125 Malaysian CML patients on IM therapy who showed either TKI refractory or resistance to IM to investigate the frequency and pattern of BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations among Malaysian CML patients undergoing IM therapy and to determine the clinical significance. Mutational screening using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) followed by DNA sequencing was performed on 125 IM resistant Malaysian CML patients. Mutations were detected in 28 patients (22.4%). Fifteen different types of mutations (T315I, E255K, G250E, M351T, F359C, G251E, Y253H, V289F, E355G, N368S, L387M, H369R, A397P, E355A, D276G), including 2 novel mutations were identified, with T315I as the predominant type of mutation. The data generated from clinical and molecular parameters studied were correlated with the survival of CML patients. Patients with Y253H, M351T and E355G TKD mutations showed poorer prognosis compared to those without mutation. Interestingly, when the prognostic impact of the observed mutations was compared inter-individually, E355G and Y253H mutations were associated with more adverse prognosis and shorter survival (P=0.025 and 0.005 respectively) than T315I mutation. Results suggest that apart from those mutations occurring in the three crucial regions (catalytic domain, P-loop and activation-loop), other rare mutations also may have high impact in the development of resistance and adverse prognosis. Presence of mutations in different regions of BCR-ABL TKD leads to different levels of resistance and early detection of emerging mutant clones may help in decision making for alternative treatment. Serial monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcripts in CML patients allows appropriate selection of CML patients for BCR-ABL1 KD mutation analysis associated with acquired TKI resistance. Identification of these KD mutations is essential in order to direct alternative treatments in such CML patients.
    BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations, including 2 novel mutations in imatinib resistant Malaysian chronic myeloid leukemia patients-Frequency and clinical outcome.
    Leukemia research, Apr 2014 [PubMed 24456693]

6. |SUB|F|317|L

9 articles, score 2.422

Abstracts

  • The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has significantly increased survival rate and quality of life for patients with CML. Despite the high efficacy of imatinib, not all patients benefit from this treatment. Resistance to imatinib can develop from a number of mechanisms. One of the main reasons for treatment failure is a mutation in the BCR-ABL gene, which leads to therapy resistance and clonal evolution. Clearly, new treatment approaches are required for patients who are resistant to imatinib. However, mutated clones are usually susceptible to second-generation TKIs, such as nilotinib and dasatinib. The choice of the therapy depends on the type of mutation. A large trial program showed that dasatinib is effective in patients previously exposed to imatinib. However, for a minority of patients who experience treatment failure with TKI or progress to advanced-phase disease, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains the therapeutic option. In spite of the high curative potential of allo-SCT, its high relapse rate still requires a feasible strategy of posttransplant treatment and prophylaxis. We report a case of a CML patient with primary resistance to first-line TKI therapy. The patient developed an undifferentiated blast crisis. Before dasatinib therapy, the patient was found to have an F317L mutation. He was successfully treated with dasatinib followed by allo-SCT. In the posttransplant period, preemptive dasatinib treatment was used to prevent disease relapse.
    Efficacy of Dasatinib in a CML Patient in Blast Crisis with F317L Mutation: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Biomarker insights, 2015 [PubMed 26673003]
  • To analyze the association of different types of ABL tyrosine point mutations and imatinib resistance to probe the relation between ABL tyrosine point mutations and the prognosis of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Nested reverse transcriptasepolym erase chain reaction was performed on samples from 70 patients to amplify the ABL kinase domain. Then, the amplified product was purified and sequenced in both direction. The homologous analysis was performed in combination of clinical data. The ABL domain point mutations were detected in 32 patients (45.7%) including 16 patients in chronic phase (CP), 6 patients in accelerated phase(AP)and 10 patients in blast phase (BP), which were detected as T315I, E255K, C475Y, Y253H, G321W, G250E, F317L, E258K, F359V, E459K and F311I, respectively. Sokal score with intermediate and high risk and Ph+ chromosome with complex karyotype were important risk factors for ABL domain point mutations. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between the patients with or without ABL domain point mutations (78.1% vs 84.2%, P=0.985), while the 5-year cumulative event-free survival (EFS) of two groups were 34.4% and 68.4% (P=0.034), respectively. The rate of complete cytogenetic response was higher in patients treated with allogenic hematopetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) compared with patients merely treated with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors or chemotherapeutics (P=0.001). Patients with ABL domain point mutations had poor efficacy and prognosis compared to those without ABL domain point mutations. Detection of ABL domain point mutations in CML-CP was helpful for the adjustment of therapeutic options and improvement of prognosis. And allo-HSCT was a more effective therapy for patients with advanced phase.
    [Correlation between point mutation in ABL kinase and clinical outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia patients].
    Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi, Aug 2014 [PubMed 25152116]
  • Data demonstrating the superiority of nilotinib over imatinib in the frontline treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and ongoing studies with dasatinib and bosutinib are rapidly changing the treatment landscape for CML. In this review, the authors discuss currently available therapies for CML, focusing on mechanisms of resistance to imatinib and treatment strategies to overcome resistance. Relevant articles were identified through searches of PubMed and abstracts from international hematology/oncology congresses. Additional information sources were identified from the bibliographies of these references and from the authors' own libraries and expertise. In vitro 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) data alone are not sufficient to guide the choice of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in the presence of a mutant breakpoint cluster region-v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog (BCR-ABL) clone, because there is a lack of data regarding how well such IC(50) values correlate with clinical response. A small subset of BCR-ABL mutant clones have been associated with impaired responses to second-generation TKIs (tyrosine to histidine mutation at codon 253 [Y253H], glutamic acid to lysine or valine mutation at codon 255 [E255K/V], and phenylalanine to cysteine or valine mutation at codon 359 [F359C/V] for nilotinib; valine to leucine mutation at codon 299 [V299L] and F317L for dasatinib); neither nilotinib nor dasatinib is active against the threonine to isoleucine mutation at codon 315 (T315I). For each second-generation TKI, the detection of 1 of a small subset of mutations at the time of resistance may be helpful in the selection of second-line therapy [corrected]. For the majority of patients, comorbidities and drug safety profiles should be the basis for choosing a second-line agent. Clinical trial data from an evaluation of the response of specific mutant BCR-ABL clones to TKIs is needed to establish the role of mutation testing in the management of CML.
    Practical advice for determining the role of BCR-ABL mutations in guiding tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Cancer, May 2011 [PubMed 21509757]

7. |SUB|Y|253|F

7 articles, score 2.343

Abstracts

  • BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations are infrequently detected in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Recent studies indicate the presence of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations in a higher percentage of CML patients when CD34+ stem/progenitor cells are investigated using sensitive techniques, and these mutations are associated with imatinib resistance and disease progression. However, such studies were limited to smaller number of patients. We investigated BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells from 100 chronic-phase CML patients by multiplex allele-specific PCR and sequencing at diagnosis. Mutations were re-investigated upon manifestation of imatinib resistance using allele-specific PCR and direct sequencing of BCR-ABL kinase domain. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations were detected in 32/100 patients and included F311L, M351T, and T315I. After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 8-48), all patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations exhibited imatinib resistance. Of the 68 patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, 24 developed imatinib resistance; allele-specific PCR and BCR-ABL kinase domain sequencing detected mutations in 22 of these patients. All 32 patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations had the same mutations after manifestation of imatinib-resistance. In imatinib-resistant patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, we detected F311L, M351T, Y253F, and T315I mutations. All imatinib-resistant patients except T315I and Y253F mutations responded to imatinib dose escalation. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can be detected in a substantial number of chronic-phase CML patients by sensitive allele-specific PCR technique using CD34+ cells. These mutations are associated with imatinib resistance if affecting drug binding directly or indirectly. After the recent approval of nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib and ponatinib for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia along with imatinib, all of which vary in their effectiveness against mutated BCR-ABL forms, detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can help in selection of appropriate first-line drug therapy. Thus, mutation testing using CD34+ cells may facilitate improved, patient-tailored treatment.
    Sensitive detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells of newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients is associated with imatinib resistance: implications in the post-imatinib era.
    PloS one, 2013 [PubMed 23409026]
  • To find new kinase inhibitors that overcome the imatinib resistance in treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), we synthesized C817, a novel derivative of curcumin, and tested its activities against wild-type (WT) and imatinib-resistant mutant Abl kinases, as well as in imatinib-sensitive and resistant CML cells in vitro. 32D cells harboring WT or mutant Abl kinases (nucleotide binding P-loop mutants Q252H, Y253F, and imatinib contact residue mutant T315I), as well as K562/G01 cells (with whole Bcr-Abl gene amplication) were tested. Kinase activity was measured using Kinase-Glo Luminescent Kinase Assay Platform in recombinant WT and mutant (Q252H, Y253F, and T315I) Abl kinases. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The phosphorylation levels of Bcr-Abl initiated signaling proteins were analyzed using Western blotting. Colony forming units (CFU) growth and long term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) were used to test the effects of C817 on human leukemia progenitor/stem cells. C817 potently inhibited both WT and mutant (Q252H, Y253F, and T315I) Abl kinase activities in a non-ATP competitive manner with the values of IC₅₀ at low nanomole levels. In consistent with above results, C817 suppressed the growth of both imatinib-sensitive and resistant CML cells, including wild-type K562, K562/G01, 32D-T315I, 32D-Q252H, and 32D-Y253F cells with the values of IC₅₀ at low micromole levels. C817 (0.5 or 1 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl and downstream proteins STAT-5 and CrkL in imatinib-resistant K562/G01 cells. Furthermore, C817 significantly suppressed CFU growth and LTC-ICs, implicating that C817 could eradiate human leukemia progenitor/stem cells. C817 is a promising compound for treatment of CML patients with Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutations that confer imatinib resistance.
    Curcumin derivative C817 inhibits proliferation of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells with wild-type or mutant Bcr-Abl in vitro.
    Acta pharmacologica Sinica, Mar 2014 [PubMed 24487968]
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is effectively treated with imatinib. However, reactivation of Bcr-Abl via kinase domain mutations that reduce sensitivity to imatinib can cause relapse. As combination therapy is frequently used to prevent emergence of resistance, the combination of imatinib with an inhibitor of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants (e.g., Src/Abl inhibitors AP23848 and BMS-354825) was investigated. To test this approach, cellular proliferation and Bcr-Abl tyrosine phosphorylation assays were done on Ba/F3 cells expressing wild-type (WT) Bcr-Abl and four common imatinib-resistant mutants (Y253F, E255K, T315I, and M351T). Colony-forming assays with primary CML cells were also done. Both Src/Abl inhibitors retained full inhibitory capacity when coadministered with imatinib at concentrations above typical clinical levels. For cells expressing WT Bcr-Abl or the marginally imatinib-resistant mutant M351T, inclusion of imatinib at therapeutic levels enhanced the effects of the Src/Abl inhibitors. By comparison, for the highly imatinib-resistant mutants Y253F and E255K, inclusion of imatinib at clinical levels resulted in only a slight enhancement beyond the effects of the Src/Abl inhibitors. None of the inhibitors affected Bcr-Abl T315I cells. Colony-forming assays with primary CML cells yielded analogous results. Our results indicate that Src/Abl inhibitors are compatible with imatinib and suggest that combined Abl inhibitor therapy is a feasible treatment strategy for patients with CML.
    Combined Abl inhibitor therapy for minimizing drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia: Src/Abl inhibitors are compatible with imatinib.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Oct 2005 [PubMed 16203792]

8. |SUB|V|299|L

7 articles, score 2.290

Abstracts

  • To evaluate the efficiency of dasatinib as the second- or third-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)in imatinib-resistant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)based on BCR-ABL mutation detection. 122 CML patients received dasatinib treatment, including 83 with imatinib-resistance and 39 with both imatinib- and nilotinib-resistance, 55 in the chronic-phase (CP), 21 in the accelerated- phase (AP)and 46 in the blast- phase (BP). Those harboring dasatinib highly- resistant mutations (T315I/A, F317L/V/C and V299L)were excluded based on BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation screening by Sanger sequencing at baseline. Hematologic, cytogenetic and molecular responses were evaluated regularly, and rates of progression-free-survival (PFS)and overall survival (OS)were analyzed. BCR- ABL mutation detection was performed once the patients failed on dasatinib. In the CP patients, the rates of complete hematological response (CHR), complete cytogenetic response (CCyR), major molecular response (MMR)and molecular response 4.5 (MR4.5)were 92.7%, 53.7%, 29.6% and 14.8%, respectively. 4-year PFS and OS rates were 84.4% and 89.5%, respectively. In the AP patients, HR and CCyR rates were 81.0% and 35.0%; and 3-year PFS and OS rates were 56.1% and 59.3%, respectively. In the BP patients, HR and CCyR rates were 63.0% and 21.4%; and 1-year PFS and OS rates were 43.6% and 61.8%, respectively. Outcomes were similar when dasatinib was used as the second- line TKI or the third-line TKI. Of the 75 patients who were resistant to dasatinib, 37 (48.7%)developed new mutation(s), and T315I (59.5%)was the most common mutation type. The patients who already harbored mutation(s)before dasatinib therapy achieved similar responses and outcomes to those with no mutation at baseline. However, they had higher likelihood of developing additional mutations associated with resistance to dasatinib (65.7%vs 34.1%,P=0.006). Dasatinib was proved to be effective in the treatment of imatinib- or/and nilotinib-resistant CML patients, especially in both CP and AP cohorts. The significance of BCR-ABL mutation screening and monitoring should be highlighted before and during dasatinib therapy.
    [Dasatinib treatment based on BCR- ABL mutation detection in imatinib- resistant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia].
    Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi, Jan 2016 [PubMed 26876246]
  • Bosutinib (SKI-606) is an orally available, once-daily, dual Src and Abl kinase inhibitor with promising clinical potential in first-, second-, and third-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Bosutinib effectively inhibits wild-type BCR-ABL and most imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutations except for V299L and T315I. Low hematologic toxicity is a remarkable characteristic of this novel second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and this has been ascribed to its minimal activity against the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and KIT. Low-grade, typically self-limiting diarrhea, which usually appears within the first few weeks after treatment initiation, represents the predominant toxicity of bosutinib. Other treatment-associated adverse events are mostly mild to moderate. Bosutinib has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic, accelerated, or blast phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML in adult patients with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy. This review summarizes the main properties of bosutinib and the currently available data on its clinical potential in the treatment of CML.
    Profile of bosutinib and its clinical potential in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.
    OncoTargets and therapy, 2013 [PubMed 23493838]
  • Bosutinib (SKI-606) is an orally available, once-daily dual Src and Abl kinase inhibitor, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adults with chronic, accelerated, or blast-phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia who are intolerant of or resistant to first- or second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Bosutinib effectively overcomes the majority of imatinib-resistance-conferring BCR-ABL mutations except V299L and T315I. In the Bosutinib Efficacy and Safety in chronic myeloid LeukemiA (BELA) trial, bosutinib attained a faster and deeper molecular response than imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Treatment-emergent adverse events are usually very manageable. Low grade, mostly self-limiting diarrhea represents the most frequently observed toxicity of bosutinib. Anti-diarrheal drugs, antiemetic agents, and/or fluid replacement should be used to treat these patients. The improved hematological toxicity of bosutinib compared with other tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been ascribed to its minimal activity against platelet-derived growth factor receptor and KIT. In this review, we give an overview on the profile of bosutinib, the clinical potential and treatment-emergent adverse events.
    Bosutinib in the management of chronic myelogenous leukemia.
    Biologics : targets & therapy, 2013 [PubMed 23674887]

9. |SUB|C|3435|T

4 articles, score 2.107

Abstracts

  • MDR1 gene polymorphisms were demonstrated to be associated with interindividual variability of imatinib response for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients in several studies; however, the results have been inconclusive. To clarify the effect of common MDR1 variants on clinical response to imatinib, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify the accumulated information from genetic association studies. After a thorough search of the published literature, we undertook a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of MDR1 C1236T, G2677T and C3435T polymorphisms on imatinib response. Our pooled data showed a significant association between MDR1 C1236T polymorphism and the increasing risk of imatinib resistance in Asian CML patients. However, no significant association was found for the MDR1 G2677T or C3435T polymorphisms in an Asian CML population as well as a Caucasian CML population. The synonymous MDR1 C1236T polymorphism might be a risk factor for nonoptimal clinical response to imatinib in Asian CML patients.
    MDR1 gene polymorphisms and imatinib response in chronic myeloid leukemia: a meta-analysis.
    Pharmacogenomics, Apr 2014 [PubMed 24798723]
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the recommended treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The MDR1/ABCB1 gene plays a role in resistance to a wide spectrum of drugs, including TKIs. However, the association of MDR1/ABCB1 gene polymorphisms (SNPs) such as C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T with the clinical therapeutic evolution of CML has been poorly studied. We investigated these gene polymorphisms in CML-patients treated with imatinib, nilotinib and/or dasatinib. ABCB1-SNPs were studied in 22 CML-patients in the chronic phase (CP) and 2 CML-patients in blast crisis (BC), all of whom were treated with TKIs, and compared with 25 healthy controls using nested-PCR and sequencing techniques. Seventeen different haplotypes were identified: 7 only in controls, 6 only in CML-patients, and the remaining 4 in both groups. The distribution ratios of homozygous TT-variants present on each exon between controls and CML-patients were 2.9 for exon 12, and 0.32 for the other 2 exons. Heterozygous T-variants were observed in all controls (100%) and 75% of CML-patients. Wt-haplotype (CC-GG-CC) was observed in 6 CML-patients (25%). In this wt-group, two were treated with nilotinib and reached a major molecular response. The remaining 4 cases had either a minimal or null molecular response, or developed bone marrow aplasia. Our results suggest that SNPs of the MDR1/ABCB1 gene could help to characterize the prognosis and the clinical-therapeutic evolution of CML-patients treated with TKIs. Wt-haplotype could be associated with a higher risk of developing CML, and a worse clinical-therapeutic evolution.
    MDR1/ABCB1 gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Blood research, Sep 2015 [PubMed 26457282]
  • The optimal tyrosine kinase inhibitor for any individual patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is not predictable. Pharmacogenetic parameters and trough levels of imatinib (IM) have each been independently correlated with response. We therefore studied the human organic cation transporter (hOCT1) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and correlated these with IM levels and major molecular response (MMR) (3-log reduction) in 84 patients with CML, the first such study performed in Caucasians. We studied MDR1 G2677T and C3435T, and for hOCT1, C480G and A1222G. IM levels varied significantly with dose (< or > 400 mg/day) (p = 0.038) and were significantly lower in 20 patients who lost MMR (p = 0.042). Adjusting for dose, trough IM levels were not significantly correlated with SNPs. Patients with MDR1 3435 TT had significantly longer times to MMR compared to CC/CT genotypes (p = 0.047). Genotypes did not predict treatment failure when controlling for IM levels. We conclude that IM levels, but not the SNPs studied here, determine IM failure.
    Polymorphisms in the human organic cation transporter and the multidrug resistance gene: correlation with imatinib levels and clinical course in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
    Leukemia & lymphoma, Nov 2014 [PubMed 24524306]

10. |SUB|K|562|R

4 articles, score 1.717

Abstracts

  • Resistance toward imatinib (IM) and other BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors remains troublesome in the treatment of advanced stage chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The aim of this study was to estimate the reversal effects of down-regulation of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) on the chemoresistance of BCR-ABL-positive leukemia patients' cells and cell lines. After treatment with the specific NHE1 inhibitor cariporide to decrease intracellular pH (pHi), the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels of the K562R cell line and cells from IM-insensitive CML patients decreased. HO-1, as a Bcr/Abl-dependent survival molecule in CML cells, is important for the resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with newly diagnosed CML or IM-resistant CML. Silencing PKC-β and Nrf-2 or treatment with inhibitors of p38 pathways obviously blocked NHE1-induced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, treatment with HO-1 or p38 inhibitor plus IM increased the apoptosis of the K562R cell line and IM-insensitive CML patients' cells. Inhibiting HO-1 enhanced the activation of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Hence, the results support the anti-apoptotic role of HO-1 induced by NHE1 in the K562R cell line and IM-insensitive CML patients and provide a mechanism by which inducing HO-1 expression via the PKC-β/p38-MAPK pathway may promote tumor resistance to oxidative stress.
    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 by Na+-H+ exchanger 1 protein plays a crucial role in imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
    The Journal of biological chemistry, May 2015 [PubMed 25802333]
  • Despite the success of imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) remains largely incurable, and a number of CML patients die due to Abl mutation-related drug resistance and blast crisis. The aim of this study was to evaluate proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction by down-regulating PPP2R5C gene expression in the imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant CML cell lines K562, K562R (imatinib resistant without an Abl gene mutation), 32D-Bcr-Abl WT (imatinib-sensitive murine CML cell line with a wild type Abl gene) and 32D-Bcr-Abl T315I (imatinib resistant with a T315I Abl gene mutation) and primary cells from CML patients by RNA interference. PPP2R5C siRNAs numbered 799 and 991 were obtained by chemosynthesis. Non-silencing siRNA scrambled control (SC)-treated, mock-transfected, and untreated cells were used as controls. The PPP2R5C mRNA and protein expression levels in treated CML cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, and in vitro cell proliferation was assayed with the cell counting kit-8 method. The morphology and percentage of apoptosis were revealed by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry (FCM). The results demonstrated that both siRNAs had the best silencing results after nucleofection in all four cell lines and primary cells. A reduction in PPP2R5C mRNA and protein levels was observed in the treated cells. The proliferation rate of the PPP2R5C-siRNA-treated CML cell lines was significantly decreased at 72 h, and apoptosis was significantly increased. Significantly higher proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction were found in K562R cells treated with PPP2R5C-siRNA799 than K562 cells. In conclusion, the suppression of PPP2R5C by RNA interference could inhibit proliferation and effectively induce apoptosis in CML cells that were either imatinib sensitive or resistant. Down-regulating PPP2R5C gene expression might be considered as a new therapeutic target strategy for CML, particularly for imatinib-resistant CML.
    Proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells via PPP2R5C down-regulation.
    Journal of hematology & oncology, 2013 [PubMed 24004697]
  • Treatment with imatinib mesylate (IM) (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor) is the first line of standard care for patients newly diagnosed with CML. Despite the success of IM and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) remains largely incurable, and a number of CML patients die due to Abl mutation-related drug resistance and blast crisis. 3, 5-Dihydroxy-6, 7, 3'4'-tetramethoxyflavone (DHTMF) is a polymethoxyflavone isolated from Laggera pterodonta which is a herbal medicine used to treat cancer in the Chinese folk. In the previous study, we found DHTMF demonstrated good antiproliferative activities against a number of cancer cell lines and induced the apoptosis of CNE cells in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner while exhibiting low cytotoxicity in the two normal cell lines Vero and EVC304. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induced by DHTMF alone and in combination with IM in the IM-resistant CML cell line K562R. Cell proliferation was assayed with the cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) method. The apoptosis percentage was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was detected using FCM and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The level of proteins involved in apoptosis was detected by Western blotting. DHTMF suppressed K562R cell viability in both time- and dose-dependent manners. DHTMF combined with IM enhanced the inhibitory effects and apoptosis in K562R cells as compared with DHTMF alone. DHTMF alone and in combination with IM significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-7, caspase-3, and PARP in K562R cells. We demonstrated that DHTMF could inhibit IM-resistant K562R cell proliferation and induces apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. These results suggest that DHTMF may be a potential therapeutic drug with lower side effects against IM resistance in CML cells.
    A polymethoxyflavone from Laggera pterodonta induces apoptosis in imatinib-resistant K562R cells via activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway.
    Cancer cell international, 2014 [PubMed 25530716]


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