ABL kinase domain mutations have been implicated in the resistance to the BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib mesylate of Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) leukemia patients. Using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing, we screened for ABL kinase domain mutations in 370 Ph+ patients with evidence of hematologic or cytogenetic resistance to imatinib. Mutations were found in 127 of 297 (43%) evaluable patients. Mutations were found in 27% of chronic-phase patients (14% treated with imatinib frontline; 31% treated with imatinib post-IFN failure), 52% of accelerated-phase patients, 75% of myeloid blast crisis patients, and 83% of lymphoid blast crisis/Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Mutations were associated in 30% of patients with primary resistance (44% hematologic and 28% cytogenetic) and in 57% of patients with acquired resistance (23% patients who lost cytogenetic response; 55% patients who lost hematologic response; and 87% patients who progressed to accelerated phase/blast crisis). P-loop and T315I mutations were particularly frequent in advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph+ ALL patients, and often accompanied progression from chronic phase to accelerated phase/blast crisis. We conclude that (a) amino acid substitutions at seven residues (M244V, G250E, Y253F/H, E255K/V, T315I, M351T, and F359V) account for 85% of all resistance-associated mutations; (b) the search for mutations is important both in case of imatinib failure and in case of loss of response at the hematologic or cytogenetic level; (c) advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph+ ALL patients have a higher likelihood of developing imatinib-resistant mutations; and (d) the presence of either P-loop or T315I mutations in imatinib-treated patients should warn the clinician to reconsider the therapeutic strategy.
Contribution of ABL kinase domain mutations to imatinib resistance in different subsets of Philadelphia-positive patients: by the GIMEMA Working Party on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, Dec 2006
The deregulated, oncogenic tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl causes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, STI571), a Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitor, selectively inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of CML cells. Despite the success of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of CML, resistance is observed, particularly in advanced disease. The most common imatinib mesylate resistance mechanism involves Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutations that impart varying degrees of drug insensitivity. AP23464, a potent adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-based inhibitor of Src and Abl kinases, displays antiproliferative activity against a human CML cell line and Bcr-Abl-transduced Ba/F3 cells (IC(50) = 14 nM; imatinib mesylate IC(50) = 350 nM). AP23464 ablates Bcr-Abl tyrosine phosphorylation, blocks cell cycle progression, and promotes apoptosis of Bcr-Abl-expressing cells. Biochemical assays with purified glutathione S transferase (GST)-Abl kinase domain confirmed that AP23464 directly inhibits Abl activity. Importantly, the low nanomolar cellular and biochemical inhibitory properties of AP23464 extend to frequently observed imatinib mesylate-resistant Bcr-Abl mutants, including nucleotide binding P-loop mutants Q252H, Y253F, E255K, C-terminal loop mutant M351T, and activation loop mutant H396P. AP23464 was ineffective against mutant T315I, an imatinib mesylate contact residue. The potency of AP23464 against imatinib mesylate-refractory Bcr-Abl and its distinct binding mode relative to imatinib mesylate warrant further investigation of AP23464 for the treatment of CML.
Inhibition of wild-type and mutant Bcr-Abl by AP23464, a potent ATP-based oncogenic protein kinase inhibitor: implications for CML.
Blood, Oct 2004
BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations are infrequently detected in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Recent studies indicate the presence of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations in a higher percentage of CML patients when CD34+ stem/progenitor cells are investigated using sensitive techniques, and these mutations are associated with imatinib resistance and disease progression. However, such studies were limited to smaller number of patients. We investigated BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells from 100 chronic-phase CML patients by multiplex allele-specific PCR and sequencing at diagnosis. Mutations were re-investigated upon manifestation of imatinib resistance using allele-specific PCR and direct sequencing of BCR-ABL kinase domain. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations were detected in 32/100 patients and included F311L, M351T, and T315I. After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 8-48), all patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations exhibited imatinib resistance. Of the 68 patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, 24 developed imatinib resistance; allele-specific PCR and BCR-ABL kinase domain sequencing detected mutations in 22 of these patients. All 32 patients with pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations had the same mutations after manifestation of imatinib-resistance. In imatinib-resistant patients without pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations, we detected F311L, M351T, Y253F, and T315I mutations. All imatinib-resistant patients except T315I and Y253F mutations responded to imatinib dose escalation. Pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can be detected in a substantial number of chronic-phase CML patients by sensitive allele-specific PCR technique using CD34+ cells. These mutations are associated with imatinib resistance if affecting drug binding directly or indirectly. After the recent approval of nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib and ponatinib for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia along with imatinib, all of which vary in their effectiveness against mutated BCR-ABL forms, detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL mutations can help in selection of appropriate first-line drug therapy. Thus, mutation testing using CD34+ cells may facilitate improved, patient-tailored treatment.
Sensitive detection of pre-existing BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in CD34+ cells of newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients is associated with imatinib resistance: implications in the post-imatinib era.
PloS one, 2013